The Organization of Labor and Association/Man Is Created for Association

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The Organization of Labor and Association.
Man Is Created for Association.
Back. Mathieu Briancourt. Forward.




"He shall enter into the kingdom of God who doeth the will of my Father who is in the heavens.

St. Matthew, chap. vii.

My travelling companions and myself approached the most animated group. The doctor, who made part of it, was earnestly addressing a grave looking man, who, we were told, was the professor of physic and mathematics in the royal college of the shire town.

"It is impossible," said the doctor, "you do not think, Sir, that we ought to take literally that exclamation drawn by the foresight of a great good from the excellent heart of our venerable pastor: 'Then the will or God shall be done upon the earth.' This is one of those hyperbolical phrases which cannot be accepted as the expression of a scientific truth."

Professor. "Excuse me, doctor; I do say very positively, the form of society willed by God, in view of which the Creator has given to man all his wants and all his natural instincts, is and can be no other than that resulting from the integral association of the inhabitants of a township, organized in regiments of workers, after the manner which we have heard explained. This proposition seems to you bold, extravagant. Well, I will endeavor to demonstrate it to you decidedly.

"If I am compelled to enter into rather extended details, you will excuse me, gentlemen, in view of the .importance of the question, to the demonstration of which I attach great weight, inasmuch as the truly religious persons whom I may have the happiness to convince, must necessarily, if they are consistent, do all in their power to contribute to the coming or God's kingdom, and to the accomplishment of his will here below. [38]

"In order to introduce more method into my demonstration, I will read to you, if you please, some pages in which I have endeavored to discover the terrestrial destiny of humanity, and the manner in which the Creator intends that man shall proceed to the accomplishment of that destiny. I will afterwards complete my proofs if you wish to hear them."

All the group having testified a desire to hear, we took our seats upon benches placed in the shade of an aged linden near at hand, and the professor read his manuscript, which was as follows.


Attractions are proportional to Destinies.

God, the Creator of all things, is infinitely good and infinitely just.

"In order to discover what is the terrestrial destiny of humanity, I must first establish two propositions, which, as they are intended to serve as a base to my principal proposition, must be demonstrated in an unshakeable manner. I request you, therefore, gentlemen," added the professor, addressing us, "to allow nothing that is in any way uncertain to pass in my reasonings: they ought to be as unattackable as mathematical demonstrations.

"These two propositions are as follows:

"1st. God gives to all his creatures the powers and the instruments, material and immaterial, which are best adapted to the accomplishment of their destinies.

"2d. God is always economical in means; by this I mean that the Creator makes things and makes them operate with the least possible expenditure of instruments and powers.

"These propositions, which are axioms to every one who admits a good, just, and powerful Creator, are easily demonstrated by examining animate and inanimate beings with a little attention. We will do this succinctly.

"The beings with which the earth is covered may be classed [39] in four different great categories, to wit, the minerals, comprehending all inanimate bodies; the vegetables; the animals; the human race.

"All known bodies are formed of elements which are few in number; in our day chemistry reckons only eleven, exclusive of the metals. For ourselves, we are persuaded that these elements are themselves formed of only a single one, of which light is perhaps one of the most simple manifestations. The discoveries recently made in astronomy, in chemistry, and in physics, authorize us to believe that unity of substance will be proclaimed ere long. This opinion, moreover, is in accordance with the Genesis, which informs us that the first creature issuing from the hands of God was light.

"However this may be, the bodies called elementary by the chemists appear to obey a single power, attraction; but each of those elements is provided with a dose of attraction, if we may thus express ourselves, so admirably proportioned to its numerous destinies, that these eleven elements are enough, with a few metals, as we have said, to give birth to everything that is in the bosom and on the surface of the .earth.

"Oxygen, for example, which is one of the eleven elementary bodies, has received an attraction which leads it, compels it to combine itself with the metals, in order to form oxides; with eight of the ten other elements, to form acids ; and with a ninth, hydrogen, to compose water. This liquid, in its turn, is animated with an attraction so wonderfully proportioned to the wants of plants and animals, that it dissolves in air with the greatest facility, and abandons it in the same manner; so that a slight cooling of the atmosphere is enough to cause the water which is contained in it to resolve itself into dew, rain, &c., and to distribute on all sides life and freshness.

"And as a similar reasoning can be employed with regard to all other crude' bodies, simple or compound, solid, liquid, or gaseous, we are right in concluding:

"1st. That God has given to inanimate bodies attractions proportional to their destinies. "2d. That the Creator has been economical of means in crude bodies, for he has formed them of a small number of elements, [40] probably of a single one, and he makes them accomplish their destinies by means or a single power: attraction.

"If we study the vegetable kingdom, we shall recognise, with M. Dumas, that the principal task of plants is to form organic materials for the nourishment of animals.

"Now let us see how the vegetables accomplish this mission according to that wise professor.

'" The air contains or engenders oxidized products, principally water, the oxide of hydrogen, carbonic acid, and azotic acid. The plants decompose these oxides and take possession of their bases, that is, of hydrogen, of carbon, and of azote'<ref>Nitrogen.</ref>', and with these three elements they form all the organic and organizable matters which they yield to animals. They throw back the oxygen into the atmosphere.

"'The animals, in their turn, by the aid of the oxygen which they draw from the atmosphere by their breathing, burn the vegetable matters on which they feed, and reproduce water, carbonic acid, and azotic acid, which return to the atmosphere, to reproduce anew the same phenomena in the immensity of the ages.

"Let us add,' says the learned man whom we quote, 'let us add to this picture, so striking from its simplicity and its greatness, the undisputed part filled by solar light, which alone has power to put in motion this immense apparatus, to develop the vegetable kingdom, which absorbs, by its green portion, the chemical force of the luminous rays, in order to form organic products which, eaten, then burned by animals, reproduce the differences by which their movements are assisted, and the heat, the electricity which constitute our strength and measure its extent....

'" Thus is formed the mysterious circle of organic life upon the surface of the globe, thus the atmosphere constitutes the chain which binds the animal kingdom to the vegetable.'

"The vegetables commissioned to accumulate power for the benefit of animals, as M. Dumas teaches, are so organized as to be rarely required to employ that power in order to accomplish their functions: thus the Creator, economical in all things, has not given to plants powerful organs like the heart in animals. [41] In order to cause the circulation of the sap, that blood of vegetables which runs through the whole plant, from the roots to the most elevated extremes, in order to produce and renew the organs, nature employs a particular method, endosmosis, which is not capillary attraction, for it allows the sap to issue from the tubes in which it is enclosed, and to spread itself in the interior, and even outside of the plant.

"Nevertheless, in the important acts of their life, in those, among others, having for object the reproduction of their species, plants bum the sugar they have accumulated, and reproduce heat and strength: they then live an almost animal life; we see them perform movements which seem to-depend upon will: they close their calyxes at the approach of night, or of a storm, in order to protect their organs of generation; they turn their corollas towards the sun in order to warm those same organs.

"The Creator has divided among the various species of vegetables the great task which he has confided to them. He has intrusted to each of them several special missions: some produce flowers, fruits in infinite variety, destined to cause the delight of men and animals; others form gum, rosin, starch; these, honey, sugar; those, oils, dye-stuffs, and a thousand other products, all of which, nevertheless, in spite of their dissimilar qualities, are composed of the same elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and, in a few, azote in small quantities.

"The apparatus commissioned to organize the different pro. ducts of plants is so delicate, so marvellously constructed, that starch, gum, dextrine, sugar, woody fibre, &c., are composed of absolutely the same elements: twelve atoms (or molecultes) of carbon and eleven atoms of water. The simple difference in the respective position of the elements, says M. Dumas, gives birth to substances which have very slight resemblance to each other.

"We may, therefore, conclude also, with regard to vegetables:

"1st. That the Creator has given to plants in general, and to each species in particular, the organs and the power necessary for the accomplishment of their destinies, since those destinies are accomplished without interruption.

"2d. That the Creator has been economical in means, since [42] he has employed to form the vegetables and their numberless products, only three or four elements, and a single power, chemical force.

"Let us pass now to the animal kingdom.

"The functions common to all animals are, as we have just said, to burn the vegetable products on which they feed, in order to appropriate to themselves the power accumulated in them, and to recompound the water and the carbonic and azotic acids which they throw back into the atmosphere where the plants resume them in order to use them anew.

"Animals, to fulfil these important tasks, are provided with mouths, with trunks, with suckers, fitted to draw in their nourishment; with teeth, beaks, and mandibles, intended to crush it; with stomachs and intestines capable of decomposing it; with arteries and other analogous organs which transport through the whole body, with the blood, the products of digestion, in order to cause the organs to grow and to renew them; with veins which carry to the lungs the blood charged with carbonic acid; finally, with lungs which absorb the oxygen of the air, and expel the carbonic acid contained in the venous blood.

"Obliged to change place in order to satisfy their wants, animals, in general, have received the organs necessary for locomotion, and they find in their food, as we have said, the power which is indispensable to put those organs in motion.

"But these two presents of the Creator, the power and the organ, are not sufficient for the animal; for, in order to change place, it is moreover requisite that he should have the will to do so, and this will is necessarily the result of a want, or an attract ,Which I shall call a stimulant.'

"Thus, while attraction is sufficient for crude matter in order to fulfil its destinies, vegetables require attraction and power, and animals require attraction, power, and stimulants.

"We will now cast a glance, as rapidly as possible, upon some of the stimulants commissioned to impel animals towards the accomplishment of the two principal tasks of their life, which are, the preservation of the individual and the perpetuation of the species. We shall discover here, as always, the economy of means or the Creator. [43]

"To grow.. and to preserve itself, the animal has two stimulants, hunger, and the desire to live, or more properly, the fear of death.

"To fly from pain, and to avoid death, the different animal species have received different material and immaterial instruments: some, strong and endowed with courage, oppose resistance to their enemies, and are provided with powerful arms, defences, teeth, horns, claws, galvanio piles, poisonous stings, &c., others, weak and timid, but shrewd and crafty, escape from their enemies by flight, and are consequently furnished with rapid wings, agile feet, threads to uphold them in the air; some are dyed with the color of the plant on which they feed, or of the trunks of trees against which they cling; and thanks to the color of their covering and their absolute immobility during danger, they escape the animal which pursues in order to devour them. Several species are protected by carapaces, shells, scales, feathers, hair, prickles; others are furnished with reservoirs containing mephitic odors, corrosive liquors, black dyes. These latter diffuse their coloring matter in the water in which they live, render it opaque, and by this means escape from the pursuit of their enemy.

"Let us here remark a circumstance very worthy of our whole admiration: all animals know their enemies,without having ever seen them, and they make use of the instruments which God has given them to serve their stimulants, without study, without previous practice, and yet with perfect skill. This is especially the case with the insects whose life, extremely brief, is incompatible with experience.

"To satisfy the second preservative stimulant of the individual, hunger, the animals have received organs and instruments which they also use perfectly, and instincts which do not deceive them.

"Those among them which feed upon living prey have a piercing sight to discover it, and powerful organs to reach it, seize it, tear it in pieces, and devour it. They know how to hunt in company, and have an exquisite smell, like the dog; or they lie patiently in wait for their prey, like the cat; know how to spread nets, like the spider; or to set traps, like the ant-lion.

"The animals which live on vegetables or their products, are [44] furnished with suckers, with trunks, with teeth of a peculiar form, and some, like the ox, with four stomachs and voluminous intestines to digest their food.

"But the carnivorous animals were not destined to devour all animals indifferently; the herbivorous were not all to feed upon the same plants. This is why nature has given to each species a taste, an instinct, by the assistance of which each animal knows surely the food which is destined for him; and this instinct is so imperious, that the greater part of the insects would perish of inanition rather than touch any other plant than that which nourishes their respective species.

"When it is in conformity with her views, nature designs as food for one species what would be poison to all the others; she gives to certain animals a strong desire for aliments the sight alone of which causes in us an extreme disgust: thus dead bodies and the excrements of large animals would, while decomposing, disengage dangerous miasmas; what does nature do? she inspires numerous species with a violent taste for these things, and grants them an exquisite smell, in order that they may discover their presence from a great distance; and legions of wolves, of hogs, of vultures, of crows, of beetles, of flies and larvas, attracted by the odor, for which we feel an irresistible repugnance, throw themselves with fury upon those ruins, turn to use the organic matters which they contain, and thus purge the earth of them.

"At the approach of winter, when the plants, by losing their verdure in our climates, take away from the herbivorous animals all means of nourishment, nature, always foreseeing, remove~ from a great number of those animals, quadrupeds, and insects, the preserving stimulant itself, hunger. Then they become completely torpid, and, in this miraculous lethargy, await the return of verdure.

"Nature, rich in expedients, does not stupify all species at the approach of frost; she engenders in some, quadrupeds fishes, birds, a new instinct which we will call a need of migration, which impels them to a milder climate, where they continue their mission, eating the insects, plants, or fruits, the substance of which they are commissioned to assimilate." [45]

The professor having interrupted his reading, in order to take breath, the doctor profited by the moment of silence to cause us to notice how imperious this need of migration is in the travelling animals. "Buffon assures us," he said, "that young quails, kept in cages almost from their birth, and which could neither know nor regret liberty, experienced regularly, twice in a year, for four years, a singular agitation and anxiety, at the customary times of migration, that is in the months of April and September. This uneasiness lasted about thirty days each time, and recommenced every day at an hour before sunset.

"I confess, gentlemen," added the doctor, "this passage of Buffon appeared to me very extraordinary, and I asked myself as did that celebrated author, what had announced the law of departure to those poor prisoners separated from their kind. But I confess also that I was not well satisfied with the explanation given by Buffon when he says: 'This fact is determined by the habit which compels the quails to migrate every year, in order to seek food which they no longer find in the country they inhabit; and this habit becomes, so to speak, an innate affection.' I ask the eloquent naturalist's pardon, but this phrase reminds me of Galileo's reply to the men at work upon the Florentine fountains, that nature has no horror of a vacuum except in a space less than thirty-two feet."

The Professor: "The need, the stimulant of migration has always been a subject of astonishment to thinkers; still it is not more surprising than a number of other stimulants of which we every day see the effects among our domestic animals; not more, for example, than that which attracts the duck, on leaving the egg, to the stream into which it throws itself with delight, in spite of the cries of anguish of the poor hen that has hatched it; not more than that which teaches the chick just out of the shell, to recognise, among all others, the grain on which it must feed, or than that other stimulant which makes it seek a refuge under its mother's wing at the slightest danger.

"No, gentlemen, the stimulants are not owing to habit; they are innate with animals, they are awakened at the precise moment when they become necessary to impel them to the [46] accomplishment of a task, and they cease to be felt as soon as that task is terminated."

And, resuming his manuscript; "Let us continue," said the professor, "and pass in review some of the instincts, or stimulants, commissioned to lead animals towards the second function of which we have spoken, towards the reproduction and preservation of the species. This research will fully confirm what I have just said, respecting the origin of the stimulants.

"If nature is prodigal of instincts to the different species, in order to cause them to avoid danger and procure food, she isnot less fruitful, nor less ingenious, when she wishes to ensure the perpetuity of those species.

"To compel animals to multiply, nature sends them an unconquerable stimulant, desire, at such a moment that the birth of the little ones shall coincide with the production of the food which they will require.

"But desire alone is not always enough to insure the perpetuity of the species. 'When the little ones are born weak, delicate attentions are indispensable to them on their entrance into life; this is why birds are excited, some time before laying, by a stimulant which impels them to construct a nest, artistically arranged.

"Let us here remark, that a bird brought up in a cage will make use of the same materials as those used by his species in constructing their nests, if placed at his disposal. This circum. stance testifies clearly, that our prisoner is moved by a stimulant common to his species, and not by a need of imitation; for he has never seen a nest made, and has received no lessons from his mother, from whom he was taken before he was hatched.

"The nests, moreover, are different in different species; always variety in unity. The birds, so earnest in constructing the cradle of their young family, garnish it with wool, feathers, moss, &c., arrange it with coquetry, and there deposit their eggs, upon which. they sit with an indefatigable patience. Still, no one has taught them that this incubatio~ is necessary for the hatching of their young; the nightingale, born in a cage, cannot even know, when she lays for the first time, that her eggs contain beings for which she will soon experience the most tender affection. [47] Incubation is, therefore, the result of a stimulant, and not of a calculation. (Add to this the well known fact, that the hen will sit as diligently upon pieces of chalk as upon eggs.)

"Some burrowing quadrupeds, moved by an analogous instinct, prepare, on their part, soft cushions for their young.

"These first cares are followed by other cares; as soon as the little ones are born, it is necessary to provide for their nourishment, for they are generally too weak, among the quadrupeds and the birds, to seek it for themselves. Then the female, of the mammiferous animals, presents to them her teats, which nature has taken care to fill, exactly in time, with an aliment perfectly appropriate to the delicacy of the stomachs for which it is destined, while the birds, animated by a touching and indefatigable solicitude, hasten in quest of living or dead animals, of insects, of small seeds and other food, agreeing with the tastes of their young family.

"It is also necessary to protect these weak creatures, to defend them in case of need. Well! nature animates the parents, particularly the females, with a powerful stimulant, maternal love, capable of the greatest devoted ness, and sometimes more energetic than the fear of death itself.

"Let us also remark here, that Providence, so liberal, is nevertheless sparing in means. When the task, which a stimulant is commissioned to cause to be accomplished, is terminated, that stimulant is withdrawn from the individual; thus desire lasts only a few moments each year in the animals, with but few exceptions; and the hen which, animated by an ardent maternal love, braved all dangers to defend her chicks, regards them with indifference, and as strangers, as soon as they can dispense with her cares.

"This question of the stimulants is extremely important in the demonstration or our theorem; we shall, therefore, be permitted to dwell upon these astonishing impulses, and also to pass in review several of the instincts which attract insects towards theaccomplishment of their destinies. They are, moreover, singularly curious, and as infinite in variety as the destinies, as the organs of these animals. .

"The female of the ant lays a very large number of eggs, [48] which are metamorphosed successively into larvas and chrysalises. That female evidently cannot suffice for the cares required by her little ones, during these numerous changes. Who, then, can replace the mother? That multitude of workmen, born without sex, and consequently knowing nothing of maternal love, but who, experiencing a boundless devotedness for those chrysalises, the hope of the republic, lavish upon them the most tender cares, and brave death to protect them.

"Insects, in general, live less than a year under their perfect form, and undergo several metamorphoses before attaining that state. The mothers cannot take care of their children, for it is impossible they should know them; a large number of females can bestow no care upon their eggs, for some die in laying them, others deposit them in places where they cannot penetrate, under the skin of animals, in the interior of fruits, &c.

"How shall nature supply the want of maternal love in this case also? The Creator displays an inexhaustible fecundity of means in these so different cases: he gives to the females of different species stimulants, which are very dissimilar, but all admirably appropriate for the object to be attained, that is, the safety of the eggs, and the satisfaction of the wants of the little ones at the very moment of their birth.

"Thus nature, who turns everything to profit, and leaves nothing useless, when she wishes to hasten the decomposition of a tree uprooted by the storm, sends myriads of beetles to perforate that tree, and deposit their eggs in its interior; of course she has provided these insects with the tools necessary to execute the work, apparently so disproportioned to the strength of such little animals, which tools she has taught them to use with all possible skill. The eggs, well sheltered by the bark of the tree, and beyond the reach of every enemy, give birth to larvas. These are fed, according to the species, some upon the bark, which they gnaw, but which they never cut entirely through to the outside so as they expose themselves, others upon the sap wood, &c.; in a word, these larvas divide among themselves that immense prey, they being commissioned to shorten the time of its uselessness, and to appropriate to themselves its organic parts.

"The stimulants, the necessities which are awakened at the [49]moment of laying, have, as we see, no relation to the usual necessities, those of the preservation of the mother; sometimes they are in every point in opposition to her habits. Thus the dragon fly and the gnat, which flutter about in the air, and fear the water that would immediately kill them, nevertheless dep0sit their eggs in ditches, because the larvas, which are to come from them, are aquatic animals.

"Thus, also, a beautiful fly, the sand sphex, which sports in our gardens, and feeds upon the honey of flowers, changes her gentle habits at the moment of laying; she furiously attacks caterpillars and other soft insects, pierces them with her dart, pours into the wound a liquor, which paralyses her victims; then she carries them to a hole she has dug in the &and, deposits in it at the same time her eggs, from which will be born carnivorous larvas, which will feed upon that living flesh, and will undergo their metamorphosis at the very moment when the provision is consumed. In all things, neither too much, nor too little.

"Evidently, the females of the different insects of which I have spoken, and all, or almost all the -others, are in the same case; they cannot in any manner know the requirements or their larvas, so different from their own. The foresight, or which they give proofs, cannot be the result either of experience or of reasoning. In depositing their eggs in such places, upon such a plant, rather than on such another; in preparing for their young~ food of which they themselves make no use, they obey, we cannot doubt it, irresistible stimulants, which are felt at the proper moment. But let us continue :

"The butterflies and certain flies do not pass immediately from the larva state to a perfect state; they undergo an extraordinary transformation on leaving the form of caterpillars; they become chrysalises.

"As they will not experience any want while in this state, they are not provided with any exterior organ; never anything unless. Shall the chrysalises, a kind of eggs, endowed with some susceptibility, be given up without defence to their numerous enemies? Feel no anxiety: Providence has foreseen all. The caterpillars of the night butterfly, at the moment of their transformation, are excited by a new stimulant, which impels them to [50] construct shells, silky within, and yet presenting a great deal or resistance without. In this soft bed they enclose themselves, and await with security their marvellous resurrection.

"Other caterpillars dig their grave in the ground, in the trees, and know how to garnish it softly and to conceal it from the piercing eyes of their enemies.

"We cannot see in these wonderful labors the result of a foresight, for it is entirely impossible that those caterpillars should have the least idea of the condition in which they will soon find themselves; neither can they be the fruit of any lessons, for the caterpillars have never seen cocoons made; they have never known their fathers. These surprising labors are therefore also the consequence of stimulants which excite these insects at the precise moment when the labors are to be executed.

"The Creator, moreover, when necessary, knows how to endow matter which is, so to speak, unorganized, with stimulants that impel it to accomplish acts which would be believed to be the result of calculation. The following is an example among many others.

"Shut up in a box with a glass cover some nettle caterpillars, children of those day butterflies which are so brightly colored, and which rival in freshness the flowers among which they delight to play, and observe attentively: when the moment has come to shed its skin, the caterpillar suspends itself by the extremity of its body to a silken thread previously glued to the cover of your box; the skin soon opens upon the back ; the head of the chrysalis, if there be anything that can be called the head, disengages itself first; then, little by little, the chrysalis comes out entirely, with the exception of quite a small part near the tail. By means of this fulcrum, the chrysalis raises itself violently, reaches the silken thread with its extremity, makes multiplied movements in order to fasten itself to it, and when it feels itself strongly held, abandons its old vestment, the caterpillar skin, which falls to the bottom of the box.

"The chrysalis of the bombyx diaparata, suspended as I have said, recognizes the approach of an ichneumon which comes to pierce it with her dart and lay her eggs in its body. In this pressing danger, our chrysalis turns round and round, so long [51] and with such rapidity, that it fatigues and drives away its enemy.

"The beings which accomplish these evolutions, which at first sight seem the result of a succession of reasonings, are a kind of eggs, as I have said: open them, you will find a pap presenting no appearance of organization.

"Each species of insects is provided with organs and particular stimulants, inasmuch as each species has particular missions to fulfil, and these missions are numerous for each of them. In fact the smallest insect has relations with the light which guides him, colors him and provides him, by the intermediary of vegetables, with the strength he requires; with the air which sustains 1lim in his flight, and from which he draws oxygen; with the whole vegetable kingdom for which he recomposes the carbonic acid gas; with the plant on which he feeds, with the bird to which he serves as food, with all that surrounds him, all that he animates, all that he embellishes with his cries, his colors, his movements. His larva, in its turn, has no less multiplied relations; and all these relations require the organs and special stimulants with which the Creator has liberally supplied him.

"I think we have entered into details enough; we have quoted a sufficient number of conclusive facts to have the right to affirm, with regard to animals, as we have done with regard to minerals and vegetables:

"1st. That God has given to all animated beings the organs, the powers, and also the stimulants which they require to accomplish their destinies.

"2d. That God has been economical of means in respect to animals, since we do not remark in them any useless organ or instinct, and because, still more, the stimulants are withdrawn from them when the work which they are commissioned to cause to be executed is accomplished.

"We have now to endeavor to ascertain what is the destiny of the human race, and what are the instruments with which the Creator has gratified it in order to accomplish that destiny. But first let us render a tribute of admiration and of gratitude to the Almighty, who has connected pleasure with the exercise of the stimulants, with the satisfaction of the wants that he has distributed [52]to his creatures; so that pleasure is found to be the recompense of the creature when obeying the orders of the Creator."

The professor having passed his manuscript to one of his neighbors with a request to continue the reading, the apothecary took advantage of a moment's silence in order to speak.

"Gentlemen," said he, "the propositions which the learned professor has demonstrated to us, are so much in accordance with the justice of the Creator, that they must be true, absolutely : moreover, all the sciences confirm what we have just heard.

"The botanist who sees a plant for the first time recognises by its foliage, its bark, its roots, &c., if it grows on the margin of water or upon precipitous rocks, if it likes open places or the shade of forests.

"Our great Cuvier, on examining fossil bones, could say if the animal of whose frame they constituted a part, had been herbivorous, insectivorous, or carnivorous, if it had inhabited mountains or marshes; he could, in a word, from the inspection of a few bones, describe the instincts and the habits of an animal, of which the species had disappeared from the surface of the earth for a great number of ages: so perfect are the relations between the organs, the stimulants, and the destinies.

"And without being a Cuvier, which of us, gentlemen, on perceiving for the first time,

"A heron, with long beak and long neck to match,
Perched on long legs and waiting to catch,

as says our inimitable fabulist, which of us would not affirm, without fear of being mistaken, that the heron is a shore bird, destined to seek his food in stagnant waters, where his task is to hunt for the fish, reptiles, and worms which are there imprisoned, and the bodies of which would decompose uselessly, spreading abroad pestilent miasmas whenever the heat had dried up the mud."

THE DOCTOR. "God grants to his creatures all that is necessary in order to accomplish their tasks. You, sir, have mathematically demonstrated this first proposition, at least so far as [53] regards the minerals, the vegetables, and the animals, those organs of universal life. Permit me to observe, in passing, that your proposition is not less true if we consider ill an isolated manner, the organs of any being; for we find them always wonderfully appropriate to the function, or, to speak with more precision, to the functions they have to perform. Thus the ear is admirably adapted for hearing, and no optical instrument will ever approximate the perfection of the eye.

"As to your second proposition: God never creates useless means, it is considered so free from doubt by the learned, that the anatomists who could not discover the function of the spleen, took good care not to conclude from this that the spleen was useless; they knew that an organ is necessary, from the sole fact of its existence: if it had no function, it would become obliterated, would be annihilated."

The Justice of the Peace. "I agree, sir professor, that your first two theorems appear to me perfectly demonstrated; but you have advanced a third: you have said, the Creator has united pleasure to the exercise of the stimulants; would you have the goodness, before resuming the reading of your manuscript, to give us some examples in support of this last proposition, which is not so evident to me as the others?"

The Professor. "Willingly: many plants open themselves when the sun sends to them his vivifying heat, as do the nervous tufts in animals to receive agreeable sensations. Those same plants, on the contrary, close their flowers and leaves, and appear to suffer when struck by a chilling wind.

"The vegetables, we have said, have for their principal mission to decompose the light, and absorb its chemical rays. Well! they evidently suffer when in darkness; placed in a spot which receives light only by a small opening, they incline towards that opening, and make visible efforts to procure for themselves the light they need: they languish and die if too long deprived of it.

"Vegetables also languish if unfavorable circumstances prevent their fulfilling some other task. They therefore experience well-being and ill-being, according as they can or cannot accomplish [54] their destinies. But have they consciousness or this, we do not know; strictly speaking, we may believe so.

"If the question of the feeling of pleasure united to the accomplishment of a function be obscure with regard to plants, there is every evidence of this truth as respects animals, and especially those animals which are most elevated in the scale of beings.

"In fact, no one doubts that the satisfaction of the stimulants, hunger, thirst, desire, maternal love, is a real pleasure to animals, and that the impossibility in which they sometimes find themselves of satisfying one or the other of these necessities occasions an ennui, a suffering which brings on disease and sometimes death.

"We must believe from analogy, and from remarking the ardor with which animals accomplish all their functions, that all the stimulants are to them causes of pleasure or of suffering, according as they can or cannot be exercised and satisfied; we must, therefore, also conclude that happiness is found in the integral accomplishment of destiny."

"You do not well understand this consequence," said the professor, replying to one of his neighbors; it is nevertheless very simple, very evident; listen:

"There is no useless stimulant, is not that true? all have an object, a task to cause to be executed. Now, the destiny of a creature being nothing else than the aggregate of the tasks which are intrusted to it by Providence, it follows that when a being accomplishes its destiny integrally, no one of its stimulants is deprived of exercise and causes pain, but, on the contrary, all are necessarily exercised and cause pleasure; in other words, a creature fulfilling its destiny finds the opportunity of satisfying all its wants, all its physical and moving desires.

"We shall also conclude that the creature encounters evil, ennui, pain, whenever it wanders from its destiny, because, when removed from its path, its wants, its inclinations are inevitably thwarted.

"Happiness is therefore, as I said, the recompense attached to obedience to the orders of the Creator; while pain and suffering are warnings destined to recall the creature to its functions. [55] The suffering is the greater the more the individual or the species, when the task is a collective one, wanders from its destiny.

"This must, moreover, be the case; for God, all good and all powerful, could not create pain without necessity. Having to choose between attraction and constraint, in order to cause his orders to be executed, the Creator must choose attraction, and reserve suffering for cases of obstinacy in disobedience."

As no one made any further observation, the professor's friend resumed the reading of the manuscript.



The terrestrial Destiny of Humanity.

"God blessed them, and he said to them: 'Increase and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over all the animals.' "

Genesis, chap. I.

"We think we have demonstrated in an incontestable manner these two propositions:

"1st. The Creator gives to all beings the powers, the organs, and the stimulants necessary for the accomplishment of their tasks.

"2d. The Creator is sparing of means; consequently he gives to his creatures no useless power, organ, or stimulant.

"We understand, moreover, a priori, that this must be so, for it would be infinitely absurd, it would be impious, to suppose that God could exact from his creature acts which he had not given it the power to accomplish, or that he could have given it necessities, desires which it was impossible for it to satisfy.

"These truths being well established, I have the right to affirm this other proposition, which is an evident corollary to the first two. The wants and destiny of any animal are always in an [56] exact proportion, so that we can discover one of the terms, the destiny, for example, when we know the other term, the wants.

"All that we have said demonstrates also that a living being accomplishes its destiny by acting upon external objects, by modifying them to satisfy its wants.

"Certain of the truth of these propositions, let us approach the essential thesis, that of the terrestrial destiny of man, and, to attain this, let us endeavor to discover what are his wants.

"It is useless, I think, to remark here that no question is now raised as to our future destiny, that which awaits us beyond the grave.

"Of all the inhabitants of the earth man is, without contradiction, the one whose wants are the most numerous.

"In fact, man inhabits all parts of the globe, with but few exceptions; and yet he is born extremely weak, and without any clothing, while the animals are better covered in proportion as they inhabit the colder countries. Good and foreseeing nature even carries her solicitude so far as to clothe with warmer furs, at the approach of winter, those species which do not migrate.

"Man does not bring his habitation with him, on coming into the world, as do the tortoise and the snail; he does not instinctively know how to build a nest like the swallow, or to dig a burrow like the fox; and yet no creature has an equal need of shelter against its enemies, and against the inclemency of the seasons.

"Man has not even received offensive or defensive weapons like the animals.

"He is therefore compelled to create all, weapons, lodging, clothing, food. I say fixed, for if there do exist some countries favored by heaven, in which man without difficulty procures nutritious and abundant fruits, it is not less true that he would die of hunger upon four-fifths of the earth, if he were reduced to live upon the fruits which grow there spontaneously.

"The food of man is not limited to a single plant, as is the case with numbers of animals; but if he can nourish himself with a great number of vegetables, he is compelled to make the larger portion of them undergo a preparation, common cooking, without which they have a repulsive taste to his palate. [57]

"Man is also carnivorous; his teeth and his intestines show this. He eats almost all kinds of terrestrial and aquatic animals; nevertheless raw meat is repugnant to him. Some physicians even pretend that it is Poisonous to him. However this may be, the most savage man causes the flesh of animals to undergo a preparation before using it for food; he cooks it or prepares it in some other manner. "And not only does man experience many more wants than all other creatures, but his wants are much more requiring than theirs.

"Thus, while animals do not covet any other clothing, any other food than that which has from all time formed the delight of the individuals of their species, while they do not seek to improve their dens, to embellish their nests, man, on the contrary, feels incessantly tormented with the desire to ameliorate everything that serves his wants. Look for a moment:

"Wild vegetables and the flesh of animals, even when prepared by cooking, are not long sufficient for our wants. We require more refined dishes; and, as soon as we are able, the products of the soils and of the waters of the whole earth, improved by wise cultivation, and prepared in a thousand ingenious manners, cover our tables, upon which water yields its place to the most generous and most exquisite wines, and to drinks of every kind. " The skins of animals serve as clothing for man in the infancy of society; but the need .of cleanliness, the desire of fixing attention, the inclination to please, coquetry in fine, cause him soon to invent webs of every nature, and the most precious stuffs become necessary to him. " The habitation of man which, in the beginning, was a cavern, successively became a hut, a cabin, a house, a palace, and architecture invented wonders to lodge him: the rarest marbles were employed to raise his abode, which sculpture, painting, and all the arts rivalled each other to adorn. In a word, our wants become always more and more requiring, and to satisfy them we lay under contribution all the kingdoms of nature, while the animals have at this day the same wants, [58] neither more nor less, which have been experienced by their fathers since the creation.

"We may therefore affirm, without fear of mistake, that the terrestrial destiny of man is labor applied to all the products of our globe; to the minerals, in order to procure for himself metals, stones, plasters, &c.; to the plants, in order to multiply them and to create, so to speak, new species, very superior to those which grow spontaneously; to improve the flowers, to the beauty and perfume of which man alone is sensible; to the animals, finally, in order to preserve and improve those races which are useful to him, and to destroy those which are noxious.

"Thus the mission of man is to adorn, to embellish, to render fruitful the earth which God has given him to govern, as says the Bible. He must make abundance and order prevail in it, conditions which are indispensable for the complete satisfaction of his wants.

"Let us now seek to discover the powers, the instruments, and the stimulants, which we have received; they must be mighty, they must be sublime, to be sufficient for the immense, the glorious, and, so to speak, the divine task for which we are commissioned.

"Man is endowed with a muscular strength which is great and relatively superior to that of animals. The Creator has presented him, that he may use this strength, with a material instrument, the hand—an admirable instrument, with which he can move very heavy burdens and mould the most delicate objects.

"Man has received an immaterial instrument, the memory, an astonishing faculty which gives him the possibility of acquiring experience, of perfecting his labors, and of making other men profit by his progress.

"The Almighty has, moreover, made us a marvellous gift: he has granted to us intellect, a divine principle, by the assistance of which we discover and put to use the laws of nature, which we incessantly endeavor to penetrate, for we are imbued with an insatiable desire of knowledge.

"Remark, in passing, that if attraction is sufficient to crude matter in order to accomplish its destiny, the vegetables require attraction and power; I mean by this a free power, independent of the attractive power. The animals cannot do without attraction [59] power, and stimulants, nor man without attraction, power, stimulants, and intellect.

"The humanitary task being immense, and the physical strength of man not being sufficient for it, the Creator has placed under our hand strength far superior to our own, which we direct at our will. Thus we find courageous and powerful assistants in our beasts of draught, animals so docile to the voice made to command them, that a herd of oxen obey a weak child.

"We have in the dog, a servant, an intelligent companion, devoted even to the death, ready to defend us against our enemies, and skilful to assist us in the chase and in the care of our flocks.

"The intellect of man has known how to bring into subjection to him other powers; he employs, in order to manufacture his clothes, to build and ornament his abode and prepare his weapons, ingenious machines which multiply his hands a hundred fold, and to which motion is given by the fall of water, by the tides, the winds, steam, electricity, &c.

"Finally, Providence has placed in the service of man, and of man alone, since he alone had need of it, an agent of wonderful power, fire. With the assistance of this agent, we prepare our food, we mould the metals, those substances so admirably adapted to our wants, we subject to us all that there is upon the earth.

"Let us proclaim it, therefore, with gratitude: if the task intrusted to humanity is immense, immense also are the powers and the .instruments which are placed at its disposal, or which its intellect has received the power to create.

"Before searching for the stimulants destined to impel man to the labor with which he is charged, let us say a word upon some instincts which were indispensable for him.

"Humanity, called to govern its planet, its beautiful domain, ought to occupy the whole surface. This is why the Creator has placed in the heart of the king of the earth the love of his native soil, so violent in a great number of individuals, that a prolonged absence from the place of their birth occasions in them that sad disease, nostalgia, which often carries them to the grave.

"This love of country was in fact necessary to prevent the [60]people from precipitating themselves en masse towards those countries most favored by heaven; and this is evidently its mission, as the love of country is the more vivid in men, the poorer the country in which they dwell, and the more difficult it is to support life there—an effect opposed to the desire of comfort, so imperious in all perceptive beings.

"But, on the other hand, the humanitary work being common to all men, since it is necessary to an, the nations must concert together in order to accomplish it. This is why nature inspires some individuals with a want entirely different from the love or country: the desire of seeing and the unquiet humor, as says our good La Fontaine. This desire impels persons who experience it to journey, to serve as a bond between the nations, to make the people progress towards unity. And, let us remark it well, this desire is felt only among people placed at the head of progress and commissioned, in consequence, to be the initiators of their less advanced brothers.

"Is it not also in view of human unity that the Creator has endowed each country with different products, eternal sources of exchanges and multiplied delights? Is it not for the same object that the inhabitants of the less fertile zones have received, as a compensation, a greater portion of activity and of inventive genius, which leads them to manufacture articles intended for clothing, in order to exchange them for the products of the soil of southern countries?

"The unity preached by the Christ is so truly the state toward, which humanity tends, that an political and social institutions produce good in proportion as they cause the nations to make with each other, and with the different classes of the same nation, more progress towards association and solidarity; and produce, on the contrary, so much the more evil as they isolate men more. I could bring a thousand proofs in support of this truth, but they would make me digress too much from my subject; I resume:

"The humanitary task is composed of labors of an infinite variety. This is why men are not all born with the same tastes, the same aptitudes. Far different in this from the animals, all individuals of which, in each species, experience identically the same wants. The Creator gives to each of us, on the contrary, [61] particular desires and vocations. Some instinctively experience a decided taste for music, poetry, painting; others for mathematics, the exact sciences; those for the mechanic arts, buildings, manual labors, and almost all for gardening or some other branch of culture.

"And each of us brings several vocations at our birth, because the most essential labors, those of the cultivation of the earth, do not require our attention except during a part of the year. Now, the great economist does not uselessly multiply means: if one man, then, can be sufficient for ten different labors, God will not create ten men to execute them: he will give to a single individual ten vocations for those different labors.

"We are authorized to believe that there are vocations for all the labors, and in a number proportioned to the real requirements of those labors; for if it were otherwise, it would be the first time that we found any want of foresight in nature. Is it not true, on the other hand, that the most useful arts, requiring the greatest number of hands, cultivation, mechanics, building, and among the fine arts, music, are, more than any other, in accordance with the taste of children? Now, we should study the intentions of the Creator in the child, whose native inclinations, not yet falsified, can be easily recognised.

"Man has received several other instincts, of which we will speak as opportunity offers.

"Let us now go on in our search for the stimulants commissioned to impel man to make use of the powers and the instruments at his disposal: and let us endeavor to discover in what manner those stimulants draw him towards the noble work which God has confided to him."


Of the Stimulants of Man and of their Mission.

"In the eminently important search in which we are about to engage, let us not forget that we must understand by stimulant every want, every desire, every aspiration determining the will. [62]

"We have seen the animals accomplish their tasks under the impulse of their stimulants; we must believe a priori that the stimulants given to man have equally for their mission to impel him towards the accomplishment of his destiny; in fact, for what other object could they have been created? And besides, if the great economist employs, to form all crude bodies, to create and preserve worlds, to sustain and guide the suns in space, only a single force, physical attraction, we cannot doubt but he has made that other force, which we will call passional attraction, in opposition to the first, sufficiently complete, sufficiently comprehensive to lead the human race to the end designed by his almighty power.

"I hope, while studying the law of love, which leads living beings by attraction, to prove a posteriori the reason for the existence or all our stimulants, and their perfect proportion with humanitary destiny.

"Man has for movers of his actions thirteen stimulants, five sensitive and eight animatic, not including the instincts of which we have spoken, and which we do not range in the category of stimulants, as they only show themselves accidentally, or only in a small number of individuals.

"The five sensitive stimulants answer to the need of satisfaction of the five senses; let us look at their use.

"Men experience the desire of satisfying their senses, but not all in the same manner: what pleases one displeases another. And God has willed this difference in the tastes of man, in order that nothing should be neglected in our vast task, nothing wasted at the grand banquet to which we are invited.

"Our senses, like all our other faculties, are perfectible by exercise. The Creator informs us in this manner that he wishes us to exercise all these faculties.

"Our senses become more requiring as they find means of satisfying themselves; and it is evidently thus, in order that we may be incessantly excited to perfect everything; our fields, and almost all that surrounds us, by the requirements of sight; language, music, by the requirements of hearing; dowers by those of the smell; fruits, plants, animals, by those of taste; our dresses and dwellings by those of touch. [63]

"The eight animatic<ref>from anima, the soul.</ref> stimulants are :

"The religious sentiment, the stimulant par excellence, formed by the union of all the other stimulants, as the white ray is fanned of all the colored rays of the solar spectrum.

"Then the four affective, friendship, love, love of family, ambition.

"Finally, three distributives, enthusiasm, the need of intrigue, and the need of change.

"We will examine these eight stimulants in succession, and search for the reasons of their being.

"Man desires the riches which procure for him the means of satisfying his wants; he desires health, without which there are no complete enjoyments here below; in a word, man desires happiness, towards which he tends with all the powers of his soul. Nevertheless, he is not born selfish; for he cannot be perfectly happy except on condition that his family, his friends, the whole human race are so equally; the pain of others, even that of the animals themselves, makes him suffer. Man feels and loves justice, order, the beautiful, the true; he desires to be in harmony with the whole creation, with the Creator; in a word, he is endowed with the religious<ref>Religare, to bind together.</ref> sentiment, which binds man to humanity and to God.

"This stimulant is without contradiction the most noble, the most sublime of human attributes; it separates us in a decided manner from all other terrestrial creatures.

"One of the missions of the religious sentiment is certainly to lead man to make order reign in all his labors, and justice in all his relations with his brothers.

"The first three affective stimulants, friendship, love, family love, have, among other missions; that of inducing us to redouble our earnestness in our labors, from the desire of pleasing persons attached to us by one of those sweet bonds. Who does not know, in fact, to what miracles of devotedness these stimulants have given birth in all ages!

"They are given to us, also, by the inexhaustible goodness of the Creator, to spread an infinite charm over all the instants of [64] our lives. Why must it be, alas! that the chaos in which society struggles, should make these presents of ineffable sweetness bear such bitter fruits?

"It is easily understood: these stimulants must needs be only transitory in animals, since they have only transitory missions to accomplish; the brute, in general, could not even know the animatic face of love which was useless to him; in man on the contrary, these stimulants, commissioned to impel him to a labor which lasts as long as his life, must be permanent, or, at least, succeed each other, and so to speak, be completed one by the other; consequently, as soon as one of these stimulants becomes weakened, another must increase proportionately, in order that man may feel uninterruptedly excited to distinguish himself by the desire of pleasing a beloved object, in order that his heart may never remain empty.

"The following is what actually takes place: friendship is predominant in our childhood, love in our youth, ambition in our mature age, and family love in our old age. We do not therefore say that several affective stimulants cannot share our heart. Far from this. Several usually reign there at the same time. There are even individuals of privileged character and high stamp, in whom all four command at the same time.

"We will soon speak more extendedly of ambition.

"The five sensitive stimulants and the three affective of which we have just spoken, are evidently commissioned to impel us to labor, and to excite our ardor. But nothing until now tells us how our labors ought to be organized in order that our task may be accomplished in a manner conformable with the views of the Creator. Still if the whole of humanity must take part in the prodigiously complex work which is confided to it, it is indubitable that this work should not be undertaken confusedly and without order; for God, the supreme harmony, who has taken so much pains to order labor among the beavers, the bees, the ants, and other animals living in society, cannot have willed confusion and disorder in the labor par excellence, that which continues in some sort the divine work, creation, upon the earth.

"It is evident, moreover, that if humanitary labor was to be always-incoherent, if society was destined indefinitely to see its [65]laborers waging a savage, pitiless war upon each other, God, who makes nothing that is useless, would not have placed in us the feeling and the need of order.

"Thus, we cannot doubt it, God wishes to see order prevail upon the earth. And to discover how he understands it shall be introduced, let us proceed as we did when we desired to learn the. will of the Creator with regard to the creature, let Us study the wants he has implanted.

"We are then about to search anew in the heart of man. I beseech the reader to redouble his attention here, for we are about to speak of powerful, irrepressible, unconquerable stimulants; looked upon until these latter times as defects, as vices, by the philosophers and moralists who, not discovering their usefulness, denied it. Much less wise in this respect than the physicians who did not deny the usefulness of the spleen, though they could not discover its function.

"These stimulants to which we refer are the three animatics which we have named distributives, viz. enthusiasm, the need of intrigue, and the need of change. These stimulants are called distributive, because their incontestable mission is to distribute, to organize labor.

"But before demonstrating this, we must remark that God, having created man eminently sociable, shows us thereby, that he does not wish he should labor in isolation. We have, more. over, every instant, some need of each other, and we cannot satisfy anyone of our animatic stimulants without the concurrence of one or several of our fellows. This need of union, which we will call the love of the group, is inherent in our nature: in all places, in all ages, savage or civilized, young or old, rich or poor, learned or ignorant, man seeks the society of man to share his labors or his pleasures. It is not good for man to be alone, says the Scripture in more than one place.

"The greatest diversion ceases to please if it he not shared: the young girl who has the greatest passion for a ball will not dance long if she be alone in her chamber, and on the other hand, the roughest labor is much lightened, when performed in company. The troops on a campaign, for example, cheerfully surmount fatigue under which isolated individuals would sink. [66]

"Man deprived of the contact of man suffers from ennui, and languishes. If the isolation is complete and prolonged, he becomes idiotic or crazed. The trial of solitary cells in our prisons has revealed to us these fatal effects of the repression of this love of the group.

"This is one of man's most violent wants, and in order that it may not be sterile, the Creator has made us a present of an admirable instrument, speech, which evidently serves only to communicate our thoughts, in order that we may concert together and combine our efforts.

"And this need of the group was necessary: for, if reduced to his individual powers, man could not accomplish, nor even undertake his high mission.

"Therefore we cannot be mistaken: God means that men shall unite to labor. This truth, moreover, will be felt in a much more striking manner on the examination of our distributive stimulants.

"If we do not reckon the need of the group among the stimulants or man, it is because it is only a means, but a means which is indispensable for the satisfaction of his animatic stimulants. Let us now study the three distributive stimulants, and endeavor to discover what was the Creator's object in giving them to man.

"Enthusiasm is that charm which is found in the execution of any work by a union of men impassioned for the same thought, engaged in the same object. This stimulant, acting upon masses, gives a supernatural power to the efforts of man; it increases a hundred fold the strength of armies, and causes them to surmount all obstacles with a wonderful rapidity; it accomplishes wonders among workmen hastily assembled to rescue a fellow workman from a horrible death; it sustains the ardor of a population busied in extinguishing a conflagration or in repairing dikes, the destruction of which would occasion terrible inundations.

"Enthusiasm, which galvanizes an assembled multitude with the rapidity of electricity, even in. our theatres, to applaud a favorite artist or a dramatic master-piece, proves to us in an irresistible manner that the Creator intends our labors should be executed by masses of workmen; for, I ask, with what other object can the [67] great economist have attached to numerous assemblages this astonishing property of increasing in an immense proportion the results obtained by collective labor?

"If the laborers are to operate by an assemblage of numbers, shall those assemblages be disorderly and confused? No, doubtless. God, who is harmony itself, cannot will disorder, I repeat; and the stimulants which remain to be examined will enable us to know the organization willed by the Creator for the masses of workmen.

"The need of intrigue is that need of rivalry, of strife, which leads the individual, the squad, the battalion, to redouble its efforts, sometimes to perform miracles in order to surpass, to t conquer the rival individuals, squads, battalions. This stimulant is in some degree the opposite of enthusiasm, the need of union.

"The need of intrigue, in all times, creates an esprit do corps, national rivalry, excites the different regiments, the different companies of an army, impels them to perform miracles of valor in order to acquire a reputation superior to that of other regiments, of other companies.

"The need of intrigue, having been given to man to excite individuals and groups to surpass each other, cannot be useful and impel to the perfecting of all industries except so far as the laborers working for the same object are organized. Without that, this stimulant engenders disorders of every kind. This is why it produces much more evil than good in our present society.

"I insist and say: The Creator means that men shall be united in groups to execute their labors; for he has given them the love of the group. The Creator intends also, that the groups of workmen shall be in rivalry with each other; for he has given them enthusiasm and the need of intrigue. Now, as rivalry is manifested between squads only when they are united in companies, and between companies when they are formed into battalions, we must conclude that God wills this hierarchical, organization or laborers.

"An effective stimulant, ambition, the reason for the existence of which we have still to seek, will confirm to us the necessity of this organization. [68]

"Ambition (we understand by this word that thirst for glory and honor, that want which impels man to make himself talked about and to seek for distinctions), ambition was necessary to lead us to great enterprises, to give chiefs to the laborers and to sustain them in their painful tasks. But, we cannot doubt it, this powerful mover cannot have been given to man, by supreme goodness, except with the foresight of a hierarchical organization of laborers, since, without that, it is the incessant cause of disturbances for society and deceptions for individuals. Thus, in our unorganized medium, offering no means of recognising the value of individuals, and rarely permitting even exceptional capacities to place themselves in the rank which belongs to them; in our society, we say, the false directions, the subversive effects of ambition, are mean and ridiculous when they are not dangerous; they are sometimes so horrible that instances are not wanting in which men have committed crime in order to draw the public attention for a moment.

"It is also evidently in view of a hierarchical organization, that God permits the masses to become impassioned for certain chiefs, the most complete representatives of the common thought, and that the enthusiasm of those masses should go so far as to sacrifice even their lives to obtain a look, a word of approbation from their chiefs, their idols.

"It is, therefore, impossible not to perceive it, the Creator wills that laborers should be organized in squads, companies, battalions, executing their labors under the lead of their hierarchical chiefs.

" We have still to discover the mission of the third distributive stimulant, the need of change, which leads man to vary his occupations and his pleasures.

"The need of change exists, as do all the other stimulants, in each of us, but in very different degrees. It is so much developed in certain persons that a pleasure prolonged for several hours becomes to them a suffering.

"This stimulant, like the preceding, causes great physical and moral disorders when it cannot be exercised, witness so many persons to whom an occupation always the same becomes so insupportable that, to withdraw themselves from it, they neglect their most essential duties, they compromise their dearest interests: [69] witness the numerous diseases and the deformities which overwhelm the workmen of all trades in which the need of change is repressed.

"The physicians know this: in our day, each trade engenders peculiar diseases, and with a little practice it is easy to ascertain by the form of the limbs, by the position and walk of an individual, what are his habitual labors: certain proofs that these diseases and these deformities are the consequences of a want of equilibrium of the organs, caused by an excess or a want of exercise in some of them.

"This stimulant in our day causes the unhappiness of great numbers of persons; it was nevertheless necessary in order to excite man to exercise and consequently to improve all his organs, to cultivate and develope all his vocations, which the Creator has given to him very numerous in order that he may never remain idle.

"By putting in us the need of change, God teaches us very clearly that he wills our labors to be varied, alternated; for it is impossible to discover any other reason for the existence of this stimulant, or any other means of rendering it useful.

"We think it desirable, before concluding, to group together the various propositions which we have successively demonstrated: when united their evidence will be more plainly seen.

"We have shown that the Creator grants to all creatures the material, intellectual, and passional instruments which they require to fulfil their tasks, and that he gives to them none that are useless, and, for a still stronger reason, none that can hinder them in the accomplishment of those tasks.

"We have shown that the terrestrial destiny of humanity is to govern its planet; to create, by its labor, the abundance necessary for the satisfaction of its wants. We have seen that, in this immense task, each man is destined to special details appropriate to his native vocations.

"We have demonstrated, moreover, that humanity has been provided with the powers and the instruments necessary for its mission; that the requirements of the five senses are the movers, the stimulants charged to utilize these [70] instruments and these forces; for if man did not experience wants, he would remain motionless, inert, like a rock.

"Then, passing to the mode of execution of the humanitary work, we have demonstrated, in the first place, that all men must take part in this work, for the cooperation of all is necessary; otherwise God would have created less men, and he would no longer be economical in means; since we all experience wants, justice requires that we should all share in the labors indispensable for the production of the means of satisfying those wants.

"We have shown, in the second place, that the Creator wills the association of laborers, since he has made them the gift of speech, since he grants different capabilities to each of them, and gives an immense power to association.

"We have shown, in the third place, that God excites us to redouble our efforts in our labors, by inspiring us with the desire of pleasing those persons for whom we feel friendship, love, or family love. The association of all men for the humanitary work being demonstrated, we asked what organization should govern that infinite number of laborers; for, we said, God cannot will disorder, confusion, in the labor par excellence, and if he has made us to love order and justice, it is apparently that we may make them rule in all things.

"Then, passing in review the stimulants we have received, we reasoned thus:

"God has given us the love of the group, therefore the workmen must be united in groups more or less numerous.

"But we said, it is evident that the groups of workmen cannot be isolated, independent of each other, under penalty of disorder: w hat then is the law of their union?

"And considering that the Creator has given us enthusiasm, the need of intrigue, and ambition, three stimulants which are useful only when they act upon groups connected hierarchically among themselves, and are sources of innumerable disorders and disturbances everywhere else, we have been forced to conclude that the groups or squads of workmen should be united in companies, forming by their union battalions, &c., and that these different groups must receive an impulse from their respective chiefs. [71]

"We have proved finally that the laborers must vary their labors, since the Creator has inspired us with the need of change, since he has made a present to each of us of several vocations, of several capabilities, since he has endowed our organs and all our faculties with the admirable property of improvement, but on the express condition that these presents of his goodness shall not remain inactive.

"But if God wills that we associate our efforts to produce, he must also will that we associate in order to consume the products obtained; for God is economical in means, and association is the source of every economy; for God loves all his children equally, and association alone can put all products, all enjoyments within reach of all men; for God is just, and association alone permits the establishment of justice in the division of products, that is, permits them to be distributed in proportion to the part which each laborer has taken in the creation of those products by his labor, his talent, and his capital, the three elements of all production. It is evident in fine that the Creator wills association in consumption, since he gives to each of us different wants and tastes in every species of consumption: food, clothing, lodging.

"You see, therefore, gentlemen," said the professor, putting his manuscript into his pocket, "you see that I was quite right in affirming that integral association, united with a regimental organization of the laborers, and with variety, alternation in the labors, constitutes the social form in view of which man was created with the wants and the inclinations we know that he possesses."

Several of the audience having testified a desire to make some observations, we agreed to meet again on the same spot after each had employed two hours in his own business.




When we were all again assembled, the justice of the peace [72] began to speak, and addressing the professor, "Sir," said he to him, "your reasonings are close and logical; I, who believe in final causes, should consider your conclusion as perfectly demonstrated, if you had made a complete analysis of man. But I must observe to you that you appear to have chosen among your stimulants, as you call them, those which support your Utopia, and to have entirely neglected the others. Thus you have not said a word about envy, pride, gluttony, drunkenness, anger, avarice, all passions, you will allow, which have a great deal to do with the determination of the wills of men, and which always produce trouble in society, whatever be its organization."

Professor: "No, sir, I have not concealed any of our stimulants; the vices which you have named are not innate to man; they are the disorderly effects, the false operations of the stimulants of which I have spoken, and which, all created to produce good in the medium in view of which God has given them to man, produce evil when they act under the influence of circumstances unfavorable to their development and to their satisfaction.

"Our stimulants are living forces; they therefore tend necessarily and incessantly to act. Now, if the society in which man is placed offers no useful employment to some of his stimulants or hinders them in their harmonious development, these forces, always active, will act at any rate and will cause disorders and crimes, or else one of these stimulants, being immoderately developed, will become a vice, a defect, which win occasion subversive results. Let us look at this for a moment:

"Men having, in our social sphere, no means of knowing their true value, and being naturally led to exaggerate the merit of their labors, of their capacities and their acquired knowledge, easily persuade themselves that they are superior to the persons with whom they make a comparison. Thus pride and envy are the false results of ambition, which could not degenerate in this manner in a society in which no one could be ignorant of his merit, or be deluded respecting the value of his associates and his own. In such a society, ambition would produce a useful emulation, as can already be seen in organized masses, [73] for example in an army which has been engaged in war long enough for the corps and the individuals to have learned to know each other upon the field of battle.

"Gluttony and drunkenness are degeneracies of the stimulant taste immoderately excited. These vices will disappear, without any doubt, whenever society shall procure the means of satisfaction for all the affective and sensitive stimulants. They are occasioned nowadays by the impossibility in which the greatest number or men find themselves of giving satisfaction to their wants. Thus the number of drunkards is much greater in those classes which, undergoing most privations, cannot vary either their pleasures or their labors, than in the more wealthy classes.

"The laboring man, living wretchedly the whole week, bound to a single monotonous task, runs on Sunday to the tavern, where be finds the means of exercising, in an incomplete manner doubtless, but still the means of exercising, the need of the group, the need of change, where he can satisfy, up to a certain point, friendship and the affective stimulants which God has given to him as well as to princes and kings.

"Everyone knows also that gluttony, by which I mean excess in eating, does not prevail among persons who have their table covered each day with chosen and varied dishes. These persons may be dainty; but daintiness, refinement in cookery, would be far from being a vice in an organized society, since it would give a powerful impulse to improvement in cultivation and many other arts.

"Gluttony, you will remark, is not the vice of men who experience any violent passion of the soul; thus it would disappear if each could give himself up to his affective stimulants, I mean to say if we all experienced earnest friendships, real loves, if our ambition were excited all the moments of our lives; which would evidently be the case in an organized society..

"Anger is produced when one or several stimulants of an ardent person are opposed by any act of another person; but it is easy to see that anger is not a stimulant, and that it would cease to be manifested if the circumstances which occasion it should disappear. And this will take place, with very rare exceptions, [74] when the interests, far from being in opposition, shall converge towards the same object.

"Avarice may be considered as a stimulant peculiar to some individuals, and we can easily discover what mission is intended for it in a society swimming in the midst of extreme abundance, and the members of which, in general, in consequence of that very abundance, will be but little disposed to economy. In view of such a medium, the supreme economist must have created these natures who see waste with sorrow, and who will satisfy their need of economy, their avarice, if yon will, by enrolling themselves in the superintending squads charged to see that nothing is lost, that everything is turned to use.

"Yes, gentlemen, I have given you the complete list of the moving forces which make us act: examine carefully, you will discover no others. Now, I ask you, does it not result from their ensemble and from the study of each of them in particular, that God has not created us to contend eternally in antagonism and anarchical labor, in isolation and insolidarity. If humanity were destined to struggle for ever in its present chaos, the Creator would have taken good care not to give us ambition, enthusiasm, the need of intrigue, the love of the group, the need of change, and insatiable sensitive stimulants. Proportioning the stimulants to the destinies, God would, on the contrary, have inspired us with moderation in all things, with the desire of mediocrity and isolation. What do I say? the Creator would have inspired us with the love of nakedness and of poverty, he would have caused us to be born-with a single vocation, and would have made us find supreme happiness in executing a single labor during all the hours of our life.

"You can understand now what has been the for ever to be deplored mistake of those who have, until this day, governed and directed the nations: they have been obstinate in mutilating man; they have said to him: Restrain your thoughts, repress your de. sires, suppress your passions, reform the work of the Creator, in order that you may act, without too much hindrance, in the social sphere we have established.

"Really religious men would have transposed the terms of the problem, and stated it thus: Let us endeavor to modify the [75] social form, which is our work, so that man and his stimulants, which are the works of God, can be developed freely, and harmonize in it.

"But no! the legislators of the nations have labored without relaxation at their impossible and impious work; I say impious, because it tended to nothing less than to make the will of the Creator bend before that of the creature! They have, alas! gone astray, and have led humanity out of its path. The Holy Scriptures are very right in affirming, that pride has destroyed man.

"Let us look again for a moment at the play of our stimulants in our present society, rent by the antagonism of interests; the subject, gentlemen, deserves all our attention.

"The stimulants being wants, which cause pleasure when they are satisfied, and suffering when they are opposed, necessarily impel men towards the objects which will give them that satisfaction. And if society is constituted as in our day, in such a manner that it is almost impossible for each of us to satisfy his stimulants without thwarting those of another, these moving forces, given by divine goodness to produce good, will inevitably cause evils, disturbances of every nature.

"It is easy to understand how a person, full of ardor, and provided, like a spoiled child of nature, with several energetic stimulants, who was consequently destined to become the glory of society, and one of its most important members; how, I say, such a person, being so situated that he can satisfy only one of his stimulants, should abandon himself to it with fury, and fall into the greatest excesses. Thus, a man of strong temperament, from whom humanity ought to expect great services, will become a debauchee, a gambler, a drunkard; and if he cannot without crime obtain the means of satisfying his wants, which have be. come unconquerable in consequence of a faulty education, he will become an assassin.

"The stimulants and vocations, distributed in unequal degrees to each individual, form the infinite variety of human and of national characters. Characters are more elevated in proportion as the animatic stimulants are more developed, and as the stimulant par excellence, the religious sentiment, predominates in them. [76]

"Our stimulants, being a part of our nature, like our intellect, our memory, our organs, are indestructible. It is not given to man to annihilate them at his will. Nevertheless, man has received the power of modifying his stimulants and his other faculties up to a certain point; he can make use of a superior inclination to conquer an inferior one. This is his free will; this is what makes man's merit or demerit; this is why an animatic stimulant, love, ambition, &c., when excited to a high degree, imposes silence on the wants of the senses; this is why education, in developing, improving the faculties, modifies the characters of individuals; this, finally, is why religion, by exalting the supreme stimulant, the religious sentiment, has so much power over men, and why superior natures, which have this stimulant predominant, can with its assistance subdue their most energetic passions.

"If a well directed education can, by cultivating the superior stimulants, modify and improve men, for the same reason a different education will fatally impel to evil a great number of individuals. Thus, in a society incredulous and poor like our own, the workmen, whose life depends upon the labor of their hands, that is, the immense majority of men, are deprived of every moral and religious instruction, which they can, it is true, obtain at the church, but they do not go there; or in the schools, but they do not frequent them; or in good books, but they do not know how to read, or have not time to apply themselves; for s.11 their moments are barely sufficient for their severe daily toil.

"And not only are the greater part of men disinherited of all means of improvement, but they also grow up and pass their lives under the deleterious influence of the evil examples of parents, of friends, of the workshop and the tavern. We should not, therefore, be surprised when their sensitive instincts, incessantly over-excited, are developed in excess, while their animatic stimulants are in some sort annihilated for want of exercise.

"The same is also the case with natures that are inferior, and yet full of energy, in which the wants of the senses are much more imperious than those of the soul, and the religious sentiment so weak that a religious education would be powerless to modify them. Brute force alone, by awakening the instinct of preservation, can conquer those natures, so dangerous in our present society, which is ignorant of the means of making them useful.

"What shall we conclude from all this, gentlemen, except that, as man cannot change his nature, while he can very well modify the form of society, the only method of putting an end to all vices and crimes, false workings of stimulants good in themselves, is to resume from the foundation, and in an opposite manner, the labor so badly attempted by the legislators of past ages, and, in. stead of obstinately trying to reform man, to organize the social fabric upon the basis of the requirements of human stimulants, so that all these stimulants can be developed in freedom, and constantly produce good, according to the will of God?"

a colonel on half-pay. "You have very clearly proved, sir, that the destiny of man is labor. You have also demonstrated that the animals are attracted by pleasure to the accomplishment of their destinies. How does it happen, then, I would ask you, that man experiences a repugnance for labor? It seems to me that we must conclude, from this radical difference, that the law of passional attraction, as you term it, true with regard to animals, ceases to be so in the case of man."

the professor. "Allow me, Colonel, to express my surprise at hearing you say, that man does not love labor; you who are incessantly at work in your garden, when the weather is fine, and at your forge, or in your cabinet, when it is unpleasant; you whom it would be very difficult to surprise in inaction."

the colonel. "That is true: I am never more gay nor in better health than when I can amuse myself in digging, forging, or turning. But I do all this for amusement, at my own time, and without being compelled to. Besides, all persons are not alike, and we have only to look around us to be convinced that the greater part of men do not work unless they are forced to, here by poverty, there by the whip of the overseer, according to the degree of civilization of the country in which they live. Workmen, in general, much prefer passing their time at the tavern, or at some game of bowls or cards, than in the workshop."

the professor. "Ah! colonel, you dig, you forge, and you call that amusement and not a labor! [78]

"You know, gentlemen, that we often appear to be of opposite opinions, and discussions are prolonged without result, because we do not attach the same meaning to the words we use. Let us, therefore, begin by defining clearly this word labor, which, to many persons, carries with it an idea of fatigue, of suffering, of constraint, which I am far from attaching to it.

"I call labor every employment of our physical or intellectual powers, without reference to the nature of the result obtained, which may be useful, useless, or injurious.

"This understood, you will perceive without difficulty, colonel, that no healthy man, in your place, in your position, could remain in idleness; he would perhaps choose some other occupations, but certainly he would not stagnate in a complete physical and intellectual inaction; such an inaction is impossible, it is death and not life.

"Every person, in good health be it understood, likes to work, that is, to employ his powers; nothing makes him suffer more than want of occupation; and if peculiar circumstances, such as a wound or imprisonment, compel him to remain idle, ennui, spleen, physical and moral suffering soon make him feel that he is astray from his destiny.

"Man, incited by the need of change, rests himself from one labor by another labor, which he then calls a distraction, a pleasure. Thus the clerk finds refreshment in hunting or fishing; the weaver finds it in throwing a heavy ball for whole hours. And yet this rough employment of their strength, these rough labors, put the hunter and the bowl-player out of breath, and fatigue them a hundred times more than their customary occupations.

"How can labors so severe as hunting, fishing, and a thousand kinds or games, sometimes become ardent, exciting pleasures? It certainly is not because they are unproductive; for the hunter has not a less pleasure when he makes a good hunt, nor the bowl. player when he wins the games in which he is-interested. Neither is it because these labors leave few or no traces having any value or durability; for a man is evidently so much the more fond or his work as it is more durable: witness the gardeners, painters, sculptors, architects, literary men. [79]

"But, finally, how can severe labors be changed into pleasures full of attractions? I assure you, gentlemen, it depends entirely on the fact that the mere conditions under which a work is executed render it agreeable or insupportable; and if the least fatiguing occupation very often displeases us, this proceeds solely from the circumstances which accompany it, and which are more or less in opposition to our stimulants and vocations.

"If your idle fellows, colonel, prefer games and the tavern to their workshop, it is because their stimulants, especially the distributives, need of intrigue, love of the group, need of change, can be exercised in some manner in the tavern and at play, while they are repressed in the workshop.

"Thus, you see the Creator has not made man idle: God cannot will the end without willing the means. Labor, on the contrary, pleases us, and is necessary to us in every relation.

"But I perceive that you are not yet entirely convinced of this truth. Well, I will endeavor to demonstrate to you by all example, that the most repugnant occupation can be changed into pleasure.

"Among your weavers, gentlemen manufacturers, a large number dwell in small, dark, dirty, often even damp rooms. There, alone, seated before their loom for fifteen hours a day, they can earn, when their woop and warf are good, as much as two francs, barely enough to procure for them coarse garments and wretched food.

"We must not be surprised if these poor workmen do dislike their craft, since the circumstances with which it is accompanied wound their thirteen stimulants, without permitting anyone to be exercised.

"But let us take that one of your weavers who detests his trade most cordially, and raise his wages to six or eight francs, so that he can satisfy his sensitive stimulants, that is, obtain good meals, a good bed, a clean and warm chamber, comfortable and even handsome clothes; in a word, so that he can satisfy his senses according to his taste. Our weaver will no longer have such an aversion for his trade; is not this true?

"Let us now seek to procure for him the means of exercising his other stimulants, and for that purpose let us transport him [80] into this township, such as it will be fifty or sixty years hence, if you associate yourselves from this day, gentlemen, and-organize your labors. Let us place our weaver in this vast hall, so beautiful, so conveniently warmed, and so perfectly arranged, to contain these eight hundred neat and tasteful looms, which you see arranged in perfect order. These looms, moved by steam, work without noise and in measure, and one person can, in case of need, superintend two without fatigue. Here the love or the group can be completely satisfied.

"The men and women weavers whom we see, are occupied in this hall only two hours a day, during bad weather; they employ the remainder of their time in the garden, in household work, and a thousand other labors, satisfying the need of change. All these weavers have chosen this trade, some from vocation, others from some other motive. All are polite and well educated, all have received the instruction of which they were susceptible; all understand music, which forms an essential part of the unitary education. It would be impossible to distinguish the rich man from him who is not rich, by any difference in manners: listen to the pleasantries, full of good taste, which they interchange.

"See now our weaver at work in the midst of his friends: a satisfaction of friendship; near him is one of his young brothers ; in front, his mother directs a group in which appear several or his young sisters; satisfaction of family love, and not far from there is placed a beautiful young girl, his betrothed, whom he loves to madness, and whose attention he endeavors to captivate: satisfaction of the animatic face of love.

"In this workshop each squad has an interest in exciting the ardor of its members by distinctions and well retributed grades; and each workman has the pretension and the hope of becoming skilful enough to class some day as corporal; sergeant, and even captain: satisfaction of ambition and the need of intrigue. All our weavers work for the glory of the factory of the township, which, famed abroad for the beauty of its products, has its reputation to maintain: satisfaction of enthusiasm. Add, that all here, men and women, are truly religious; they know that labor is the task of humanity, and that by working they conform, consequently, [81] to the will of God, and perform an act that is agreeable to him: satisfaction of the religious sentiment!

"Do you now believe that our man will think the two hours given to weaving long? Do you believe that a person would be welcome who should propose to him to leave this hall which contains all that is dear to him, and where his stimulants all find exercise, useful development, for a hundred points at bowls, or the best party at the tavern? No, gentlemen, you do not think so; and if the captain should propose to his company to work an hour longer, in order to make up the time lost the day before on some urgent job, you would not be surprised to see the proposition received with acclamation, especially if; to charm away this additional hour, he should request our weaver's betrothed, an excellent musician, to take her seat at the organ, in order to accompany a hymn to labor, in four parts, with a chorus for nine hundred voices, including those of the hundred children, whose squads are preparing bobbins for our weavers.

"You see, therefore, the most tiresome work can become seductive, and attach the laborers passionately, when the circumstances which accompany it permit their stimulants to be satisfied."

a lady. "If I have clearly understood your reasonings, sir, I must conclude from them that the Creator has not given to man any evil inclination; but that, according to the circumstances in which we are placed, we can make a useful or injurious, virtuous or vicious, employment of our passions, which are good in themselves. This belief is highly religious, it agrees admirably with the idea which we must form to ourselves of divine goodness and justice; yet I confess, to my great regret, that I cannot share it. Look down there, I beg of you, at our graceless boys, up to their knees in" mud and dirt; see how much ardor they display in dragging a piece of furniture, abandoned during the conflagration, out of that noisome pool, which is a disgrace to our community. Do you believe, sir, that this marked preference of the greater part of children for dirty plays is a useful and good inclination? For my part, I think it is only intended to exercise their poor mothers' patience."

the professor: "This inclination, madam, is one of the [82] thousand proofs that man was created to live in a society integrally associated.

"In fact, in such a society, in which poverty will be unknown, and in which each one would have to choose among a hundred kinds or agreeable occupations, evidently no one would wish to undertake disagreeable jobs; but the great economist, who has foreseen everything, gives to children that indifference, we may rather say, that preference, for dirty exercises, at the same time that he leaves their smell obtuse until puberty, in order to intrust to them the repugnant work. These labors, moreover, will not be numerous in the future; for architecture, the mechanic arts, and chemistry will vie with each other from day to day to render them more rare and less disagreeable.

"You said just now, jestingly, and in a low voice," added the Professor, addressing one of his neighbors, "you said, sir, when we were speaking of vocations, that there would probably lie very few for cleaning stables; well! you see there at work the laborers charged by Providence with that mission, and may remark that they do not go at it lazily.

"This ardor, this fire with which youth are animated, will be some day communicated to all the laborers, when their squads shall be in rivalry with those of the adults; for, as you know, you military gentlemen especially, enthusiasm is contagious among rival companies, and, the impulse once given, everybody takes part in the action; the individual cannot remain impassive, while the mass is led away by any transport. These are the brilliant effects of the stimulant enthusiasm, acting in an organized sphere.

"Observe, I desire you, that these children do not so trouble and fatigue themselves in the hope of a pecuniary recompense. Youth is the age of disinterestedness; they very simply obey their instincts; and, to sustain their ardor, it was sufficient for them to receive a word of encouragement and approbation from that man who was looking at them just now, and who, from impulse, from imitation, has seized a rope, and is lending a helping hand.

"Among the stimulants with which childhood is animated, enthusiasm and ambition, or the love of glory, hold the first ranks; [83] thus, in association, the banner of the infantine company will be brilliant among the banners, and honored by all, small and great. Honors will be the recompense of the repugnant labors to which the children will apply themselves several hours each week."

the colonel: "Thus, sir, honors will be the reward of the most abject occupations?"

the professor: "Honors, colonel, will be acquired by devotedness and disinterestedness; and this must not surprise you, for it has always been the case.

"Is not the soldier honored in proportion to the fatigues and privations he endures, to the dangers he braves in the service of all, without hope of fortune for himself?

"The physician, who gratuitously gives his cares to the unfortunates with whom our hospitals are filled; the ecclesiastic who carries help and words of consolation, 'of hope, and love to the wretched man, deserted by every one, and dying of want, of sorrow, and despair, in his filthy and fetid lodging; those holy women who consecrate their youth and their whole life to dress hideous wounds, to nurse disgusting diseases; do they not deserve our respect and our veneration for the very reason that their charitable missions are most disagreeable, most useful, and most disinterested?

"Those noble women, those exceptional men, will always be the glory of humanity. Some day, may it not be far distant! their tasks will become less painful, less repulsive doubtless; but their noble faculties, their touching sympathy, will not remain idle; society will always have wounded to nurse, widows, orphans, mends to console, old men and children who will require their cares and their caresses.

"But let us return to our youths. Will it not be entirely just, I ask you, that these children, who will render a great service to humanity by executing those indispensable labors which no others are willing to undertake, should be recompensed by honors and distinctions, the only reward they desire, and also the only one that can be offered to devotedness without humiliating it!"

the doctor: "What you have told us, sir, is startling in its truth; you have caused us to know all the human passions, and you have shown us how, in an integrally associated society, they [84] would all concur to the general interest, even while producing individual happiness; whence you have concluded that God had this social form in view when he created man with his wants and stimulants. I do not see very clearly, I must confess, .how it would be possible not to admit your conclusion; yet I must ask you to allow me to make one observation which appears to me important.

"I am convinced, as I have already said, that the greater part of diseases will disappear from your organized society in consequence of the absence of poverty, of privations, of anxieties, and excesses, and in consequence of a proper regime and varied occupations which will harmoniously develope all our physical and intellectual faculties, and will maintain among our organs that equilibrium which constitutes health. Men, in such a sphere, will be, we cannot doubt it, incomparably happier and better than they have been until now; for they will live in abundance, free from cares and fear for their future; they will be surrounded by parents and friends whom they will love, as they will themselves be beloved by them, no motive of jealousy or cupidity being produced with sufficient strength to silence the affectionate feelings of friendship or of family. If we add to so many causes of happiness, labor, which win have become an inexhaustible source of pleasure and of gaiety, we shall proclaim the excellence of association and of the organization of labor.

"But if I confess so many and so great benefits, if I even recognise that endemic fevers and some epidemics, produced by the presence of swamps and other local circumstances, will soon disappear with their causes, it is none the less true that your organization will not have the power to destroy plagues and the cholera, to prevent inundations, storms, tempests, &c. Now, sir, if God had made social laws to render men happy, it is evident that such evils could not appear on a planet governed by those laws, for the Creator does not do things by halves. Therefore your organization is excellent, I agree, but there is no sufficient demonstration that God had it in view in the formation of man."

the professor: "Very well, doctor; you have stated it perfectly. If association, when organized, has not the power to [85] make evil disappear, under whatever form it may be produced, in order to replace it with good, allowing for exceptions valued in general at an eighth, exceptions which confirm the rule, association is not the social form willed by Providence, and we must seek some other. But I have here to do with intelligent persons, and I ask your attention; I am about to combat victoriously, as I hope, the doctor's serious objection.

"In a township integrally associated, you will all doubtless grant me this evident result, there will be neither mendicity, nor prostitution, nor theft, for a man does not rob himself, and besides, what could be done with the articles stolen? There will be no more assassinations nor suicides; there will be few cares, sorrows, and diseases, and all these pests of our present society will be replaced by abundance, good morals, health, entire and true liberty, united with perfect order and harmony among all the inhabitants.

"You will grant, also, I think, that the first township having organized association and labor, the other townships will imitate it so much the more promptly, as the inhabitants of the first enjoy more comfort, more happiness. This being stated, let us continue.

"The townships, once organized, will naturally become associated among themselves, according to the law which governs each locality. Thus a certain number of townships will form an associated canton, having its chief place and its general staff, and cultivated and administered as if it belonged to a single person.

"From step to step, several cantons will form a province, and several provinces a kingdom, and each of these will have its capital and its general staff, in the same manner as a company is composed of squads having their corporals, and a battalion of companies having their captains.

"Thus associated and organized, the kingdom will be administered by its general staff; and cultivated as if it belonged to one person. Then, and this is certainly evident, civil war, rebellions, revolutions will be annihilated for ever.

"Afterwards, the kingdoms will associate among themselves, as the cantons and provinces have already done, and the whole [86] 'earth, this beautiful domain of humanity, will be cultivated and governed as if it were the property of a single man.

"Calculate, if you can, gentlemen, the fabulous abundance and the immense economy of every kind that will be the result of this association of the human race; calculate the indescribable well being that it will diffuse over the earth.

"Then will vanish, as if by enchantment, slavery in all its forms, and the hideous trade in negroes, and famines, and the wars of nations against nations. A noble rivalry will impel the nations to surpass each other in the sciences, in the fine arts, in useful discoveries; industrial armies will execute great labors for the general good: the draining of marshes, cultivation of heaths and deserts, cutting through isthmuses, junction of seas, &c. Then there will be real glory to be obtained by the most vast ambition. Then, indeed, will man obey the order of" the Creator who has said to him: Increase and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it.

"And all these problems which our present society raises without being able to solve s single one; yes, gentlemen, a single one; as, for example, the questions of duties, of taxes, of insurances, of machines, of the popularization of higher instruction; these problems, I say, and all others, without exception, which are the despair of journalists, of economists, and of governments, will be found to be naturally solved, or, to speak more exactly, cannot be stated in the social order of which we speak. My assertion appears to you extravagant! Well! I am ready to acknowledge that association is not the social order willed by God, if you will show me a problem now insolvable, which will still be so in organized society; but if there be none such, you must confess in your turn that there is really the truth, or I know not by what sign it can be recognised.

"I now come to your objections, doctor: you understand that it will be easy for the human race, acting as a single man, under the direction of the most capable, to discover, to combat, and cause to disappear the causes of plagues and cholera. And as to tempests, earthquakes, storms, inundations, we must allow in the first place that their ravages will fall very lightly upon the individuals and the countries visited by these commotions when the nations shall be associated, when all men will be solidary.

"Do you think, then, that man, who has done such great things when he labored, so to speak, in isolation, will not be able, when associated, to dig beds for his torrents, to bank up his streams, to raise dykes against the overflowing of his rivers?

"Is it not proved, on the other hand, that sudden floods and the scarcity of water are both caused by stripping the heights of their wood? And, if this be so, will it not be easy for the industrial armies to plant forests in the places pointed out by science?

"But I go still further, and I say: if God has given in charge to humanity the government of its planet, he has necessarily given to it the power to combat all disorders, whatever they may be, and to make them disappear, for the attractions are proportional to the destinies, as we have seen.

It is well ascertained in our day that the irregular meteorological phenomena, storms, lightning, hail, tempests, &c., are caused by the disarrangement of equilibrium in the electric fluids of the earth and atmosphere. It is also acknowledged that the electric fluid tends entirely to the surface of bodies, and, consequently, to the surface of the globe. This stated, what shall one day prevent man, the absolute master of this surface, having natural lightning rods at his disposition in the large vegetables, from maintaining the electric equilibrium by a well understood cultivation, and so opposing the production of disorders occasioned by the rupture of this equilibrium?

"And if other causes still concur in the formation of irregular winds and other phenomena, man will know how to discover them and render himself their master. Who will dare to place limits to the intellect which the All-Bountiful has presented to us?"

the doctor. "Your reply, sir, is entirely satisfactory to me. Our planet is a body of which all the parts are probably solidary: the harmony of the whole will be produced by the harmony of the different parts; I am consequently persuaded that a wise cultivation, adapted everywhere to each soil, will not only prevent atmospheric disorders, but may even greatly ameliorate [88] the climates and regulate the seasons so disordered in our country. This will be a new and powerful cause of abundance and well.being. My conviction, in this respect, is founded on the dissimilarity of temperature in countries situated under the same latitudes; a dissimilarity evidently owing to the difference of cultivation, or to other circumstances which man could often modify, either by draining the swamps, or by cultivating the heaths and deserts; my conviction is moreover based upon the deterioration or amelioration of climate in countries where extensive forests have been cut down or planted. It is thus that the destruction of forests has changed the climate of the Gaules and of a portion of America, and that recently the viceroy of Egypt has partially regulated the overflowings of the Nile, by making plantations on the heights."

the justice of the peace. " As our doctor is more competent than I am in these questions of the higher physics, I willingly assent to his opinion. But permit me to make an observation of an entirely different nature. You have said, sir, slavery will be abolished by the very fact of universal association; that is indubitable. Still there will always, and necessarily, be distinct classes, domestics, for example: we cannot do without them. The unity will therefore be for ever incomplete, and jealousies, hatreds will soon be manifested in the bosom of your society."

the professor. "Excuse me, sir; in association the unity will be perfect; there will be, it is true, some persons richer than others, but none poor; some individuals more learned than others, but none ignorant; as there will always be hand. some and ugly, but few or none deformed. As to the pariahs, there cannot be any. Servitude will be unknown; for no individual will be bound to the service of another individual, all services being performed by squads into which no one is compelled to enter.

"Those persons who love cleanliness, enrolled voluntarily in a squad of sweepers, I will suppose, will keep clean the apartments of all, of the rich and of the poor, and will receive, for this labor, honor and a large share in the general profits; they will [89] be, in their turn, served by squads filling other functions, at present reserved for domestics.

"Devoted and serviceable persons whose greatest happiness it is to make themselves useful, and certainly they are not few, thank God! will compose the companies taking in charge those cares which are now considered debasing, and will at the same time form part of numerous other companies; and one who may have polished your boots in the morning, will in the evening be your corporal in a squad of cultivation, of manufacture, or the fine arts. Thus you see .that the unity will be complete."

the apothecary. "You have an answer for everything, sir, and I am compelled to admit, a satisfactory answer. I would, nevertheless, have you observe that the men of your society, being so perfectly happy and swimming in an unheard of abundance, will multiply rapidly. Now, the fertility of the earth will necessarily have its limits, and consequently the equilibrium between consumption and production will one day be broken, and poverty will reappear with all its train of sufferings, of vices, and of crimes."

the professor. "Your objection is a capital one, sir, and I confess, if population had to increase rapidly and indefinitely, happiness would not be the destiny reserved to man upon the earth. But happily, Supreme Goodness, in regulating the reproduction of his creatures, has not made a law so cruel that abundance should be an impossible thing; far the contrary. The law which governs this important function may be thus stated: the fecundity of individuals, of females especially, is in direct proportion to the intensity of causes which tend to destroy those individuals; or, what amounts to the same thing, inversely in proportion to the causes tending to their preservation, that is, inversely proportional to their well being, to their improvement.

"This proposition appears paradoxical to you, I see; but without entering into scientific explanations which would show us that it must be true, let us consult experience, gentlemen, and cast a glance upon what is passing around us in all the kingdoms of animated nature. [90]

"Have you never remarked, Mr. Apothecary, you who pay so much attention to botany, that the flowers and even the fruits on which you bestow most care produce fewer seeds as they are more perfected.

"We all of us know that horses, dogs, and other domestic animals of improved breeds, are comparatively unfruitful; whence it happens that their price is always high; and our housekeepers will tell you that their hens stop laying w hen they get too fat.

"And you, doctor, have you not observed that children are more numerous in poor than in opulent families; that weak, diseased, unhealthy women have generally more children than strong and healthy women, especially if their minds are cultivated?

the doctor. "All that is indisputable, gentlemen; and this law of reproduction, in such agreement with divine foresight and goodness, gives me the key of a phenornenon which seemed inexplicable to me. The following is the fact to which I refer:

"I was recently reading the pages in which the Abbe Raynal gives some interesting details respecting the establishments of the Jesuits in Paraguay. The author there praises the gentle and pure habits of the Paraguanians; he admires the well-being, the total absence of poverty in that nation, where everybody, he says, marries from inclination and not from interested motives; where a multitude of children is a consolation, and not a burden; and he asks why this happy country is not the most thickly peopled of all the earth.<ref> The statement recently published with regard to the people of Typee, where prevails an abundance unknown in more civilized countries, and where the increase of population is very small, if any, presents facts analogous to those here referred to.</ref>

"After having refuted. the calumnious reports by which some sought to explain this extraordinary fact, Raynal himself, unable to discover the cause, attributes it to the unhealthiness of a warm and moist climate.

"A newspaper, also, expressed its astonishment, some time since, at the fact that Paraguay, whose happy inhabitants possess a territory almost as extensive as that of France, should contain [91] no more than five hundred thousand souls, and this newspaper attributes this phenomenon to some very deep-seated vices of the system of community, without, however, informing us what those vices are.

"For myself whom Raynal's explanations and those or the author of the article I have referred to are far from satisfying, I see, in the slow increase of the most happy population on the earth, as in the prodigious multiplication of the working classes, so poor and so unhealthy, in our great manufacturing centres, I see, I repeat, an irresistible proof of that wise law of which the professor has informed us."

the professor. "This law of reproduction has numerous exceptions without doubt, as have all those which govern those animated beings which are most elevated in the scale of life, and especially man. To ascertain the existence of this law, we must examine a great number of cases, as is done in preparing tables of statistics, of the births, mortality, and crimes of a country."

the justice of the peace. "I confess that facts of every nature vie in demonstrating that the Creator has formed man for universal association; but why then have not men lived in association always, since it was the will of God?"

the professor. "God wills that humanity should one day live in association, and this will indubitably be the case; still God has not willed that this association should take effect from the very creation of man, for he could not will what was impossible, and that was so.

"In fact, the Creator, in confiding to man the government of his planet, has made him a present of the intellect which he may require to discover the moving forces, and to manufacture the instruments necessary for the accomplishment of this glorious mission. Now, as association was impracticable before the invention of those instruments, we must conclude that a longer or a shorter space of time must elapse from the appearance of man upon the earth, before the establishment of association.

"I say that we must necessarily have lived in incoherent societies until the creation of improved instruments or labor; and all can understand that it could not be otherwise; for, before the discoveries made in mechanics, an immense number of slaves [92] was required to prepare articles of the first necessity, as, for example, to reduce wheat into flour; and all labors were then so severe, so repulsive, that only men compelled by violence or hunger would submit to them: association was, therefore, impossible at that time.

"The invention of machines which abridge and facilitate labor and the creation of riches necessarily preceding association, much time had to pass before mind could conquer matter and subdue the powers of nature. But at this day all things are ready, and humanity can enter the promised land as soon as she will."

As no one made any further observation, the professor continued thus:

"I resume our discussion, gentlemen, and I say: Integral association, united with the organization of laborers in squads, companies, &c., or, as the science expresses it, in groups and series of groups, is the law of humanity; it constitutes the social form willed by God:

"1st. Because the Creator having evidently confided to man the government of the earth, having given him mission to adorn it, to embellish it, to make order, abundance, and harmony prevail in it, has necessarily granted him the powers, the organs, the stimulants, and the intellect, appropriate to the accomplishment of so beautiful a task, and cannot have imposed upon him any instinct, any inclination in opposition to that task; for, as we have demonstrated, the attractions are proportional to the destinies.

"Now, the only social form in which all the attractions of man, his vocations and stimulants, tend to the end willed by Providence; that which utilizes all, brings them into equilibrium, harmonizes them, is certainly organized association; for in that association only can all our physical, moral, and intellectual wants be satisfied in full freedom, without presenting any obstacle to the satisfaction of the wants of another.

"Our stimulants, on the contrary, incessantly produce evil in all known societies, which one would believe were invented expressly to thwart all human attractions.

"Moreover, gentlemen, if the Creator dispenses to each or us [93] moral, intellectual, and physical faculties, it is evidently not with the intention that they should languish in inaction, that our brain should be obliterated and our members become deformed from excess or want of exercise, that our heart should dry up from selfishness : deplorable results of all social spheres other than association.

"2d. Because the All-good having placed in the heart of man an unconquerable desire of being happy, happiness iti infallibly reserved to humanity. Now, association alone will have the power to procure happiness to all and to each, since evil (disorders, vices, crimes, diseases, sorrows of every nature) will be the exception; and good (virtues, health, pleasure, order, liberty) will be the rule.

"Under all social forms known until now, on the contrary, all evils are produced without cessation, while good is exceptional, and this for two reasons:

"In the first place, poverty, the cause of a thousand sufferings, is inevitable in all unorganized spheres, because isolated labor produces but little, produces badly; because a very great portion of the physical and intellectual powers of the people are lost, if not employed in destroying, and because .the equitable distribution of products is absolutely impossible.

"Besides, all societies, other than association, are desolated by the vices of men, or degraded by their brutishness, because their stimulants, unable to find useful exercise, engender all disorders, and because society, which also has the right to live, finds itself obliged, in order not to be overthrown, to repress by force the subversive operations of these stimulants.

"3d. Because the association of the human race will replace antagonism and war, by the agreement of all wills directed towards production,—the terrestrial destiny of man.

"Pain, we have said, is a warning to the creature which leaves its true path; now, societies are so much the more unhappy, as the interests of individuals or of nations are more opposed, and if this opposition becomes extreme, its consequence is war, that scourge of scourges, which men have glorified, sanctified! And yet war is visibly a disobedience to the laws of God, a deviation from our destiny, for it engenders the greatest evil that can fan [94] upon us; destruction, ruin, carnage, tears, suffering or every species, slavery, famine, plague! Can Providence more clearly inform humanity that it is on a false path?

"If, then, war is the way of perdition, we must necessarily conclude, that peace is the way of God. Now, if God wills peace, he must also will association, the only social form capable of giving it to the world.

"4th. Because association is the only social medium in harmony with that attribute which we have acknowledged in the Creator;—economy of means.

"In fact, in association, abundance will be the greatest possible, and produced with the least possible expenditure of power; for no power will be lost. The same economy will preside over the consumption of products; for all men, with their different tastes and wants, taking part in this consumption, everything will be turned to use. In all other societies, on the contrary, not the least economy ever prevails in production, or in consumption.

"5th. Because the organization of which we speak is founded on the distribution of men in all their relations, and of the townships themselves in groups and collections, or series, of groups. Now, this law of distribution is the law which governs all the beings of the universe; the stars, whose elementary group is formed of a sun for pivot, around which circulate the planets and sub-groups of planets, accompanied by their satellites; and the group immediately superior, named by the astronomers starry nebulous, is formed of a series of solar groups; and thus, perhaps, to infinity. Then the terrestrial things; animals, vegetables, minerals, form also groups and series of groups, named classes, orders, genera, species, families, varieties, &c.

"Even the individuals of all varieties are no other than collections of organs and molecules.

"If, then, the supreme Lawgiver of all things has willed, that all the harmonies of the universe should be the result of the arrangement by groups, can we with reason believe, that this same law would be insufficient to make harmony prevail in the relations of men among themselves?.

"On another side, men having to act upon all terrestrial creatures, which are distributed by groups, ought evidently to regulate [95] their labors according to the same law, in order to place themselves in connexion with those creatures. God, moreover, reveals his will to us in this respect clearly enough, by distributing to men vocations according to the general law of groups; while he gives identical instincts to all the animals of one same species.

"6th. Because the discovery of this organization has been providentially made at the very moment when humanity has created the machines, formed the moving powers which render practicable the serial organization of labors; at the period when the general tendencies of the most enlightened nations are to peace, to commercial relations, in a word, at the moment when these nations progress towards unity, preluding upon association; at the moment, in fine, when the evils caused by industrial and commercial anarchy, by unlimited competition, are visible to the least clear-sighted, for they betray themselves every day by coalitions, by revolts; for they threaten England, France, and the most industrious nations, with a social war, and call upon the thinkers, upon men of good desires and good will, to seek a remedy for such great sufferings, for such horrible dangers. We may believe that these dangers are more or less imminent, but certainly they are inevitable, if the remedy be not applied in time.

"Tell me, gentlemen, is not that organization providential, which, far from taking anything from anyone, will cover both rich and poor with goods and happiness, and create riches sufficient to enable society to make allowance for all acquired rights; that organization, which can be tried by any village, without any change in its religious, moral, civil, and political laws; that organization, which, rendering the trial township incomparably more prosperous and more happy than the surrounding townships, will have the inappreciable property of attracting the neighboring people to imitation, and from step to step the civilized nations and the whole or humanity; and this without convulsions, without revolutions, without constraint, and by the sole attraction of happiness, that powerful motive power, the only one which the Creator uses to make living beings obey him?

"This last property in the trial township is exactly conformable [96] with that which Jesus recognised in the Kingdom or Gad, which, he said, 'is like unto the leaven that a woman takes and mixes with three measures of flour, until the whole be leavened.'

"Remark, moreover, gentlemen, how the transition of the laborers from isolation to association is facilitated by the circumstance, that the requirements of association are in accordance with our present condition. Thus the poor man, formed from his childhood to the most laborious occupations, will choose them quite naturally, because he understands them, and they will necessarily be the best paid; the rich man, on the contrary, will execute the more agreeable labors, less fatiguing, and most poorly paid, so that no work will be neglected, and yet no one will do anything that is too disagreeable.

"Yes, gentlemen, it is providential, this organization which will realize so completely that divine aspiration, for which the Christ gave his life; that holy desire of brotherhood, which he expressed so well in a few words, when he cried; 'Grant, 0 my Father, that they all may be one! '

"This simplicity, this economy of means, this distributive justice; all this ensemble of circumstances, which render easy and peaceful the transformation of the social medium, are they not certain indications of the will of God ~

"The social form, of which we speak, is so visibly that willed by the Creator, that you may consider it under every face, from every possible point of view, you will find it always in agreement with the perfections of God; with his Providence, his goodness, his justice, his power, his economy; always in perfect agreement with the wants and the inclinations of man, at all ages of his life, in harmony with all the laws of nature, and in unity with the whole universe.

"I ask those religious and well-informed persons, who have followed me attentively: Is there, in any science, a truth more solidly established than my proposition: integral association, obtained by an organization into groups and series of groups, constitutes the social form willed by the Creator? "

the curate."You said, sir; 'I undertake to prove that association is the kingdom of truth and justice, the kingdom of God announced by Jesus, in order that religious and consistent [97] men may be compelled to assist, with all their power, the advent of that form of society.' I cannot see, for the true believers who have heard your demonstration, any other course to pursue than that which you desire.

"I will say, in my turn, that your theorems, so solidly demonstrated, are the most powerful weapons against incredulity.

"In fact, if the attractions are always proportional to the destinies, then an infinitely powerful and infinitely wise intelligence has presided over the creation of all beings, and atheism is overcome.

"If creatures are led to the accomplishment of their tasks by attraction, the creating intelligence is infinitely good.

"Finally, if supreme goodness does not give to his creatures any desires and aspirations, but such as will one day be satisfied, materialism is conquered in its turn, and the immortality of the soul proved; for man, in all ages, has desired not to end completely on descending into the grave.

"Honor, then, to a doctrine so consoling, so conformable to the teachings of the Christ, and to which religion will owe new strength; glory, encouragement, and assistance to the men of good-will, who shall attempt the trials of organization by which human brotherhood, and general happiness, will at last be realized ! "


The Return.

When the curate stopped speaking, our group separated. My friend, the merchant, offered the professor a seat in his carriage, and we started on our return to the city. As we went on, we talked about association, and our conversation was, in reality, only the continuation of the preceding discussions.

"I confess, gentlemen," said the magistrate to us, smiling and alluding to the morning's conversation, "I confess, that this organization appears to me a much more efficacious remedy for the [98] sufferings of society than a law upon parliamentary accountability, than electoral reforms—in a word, than all these political and revolutionary changes, by which the government and people are rightly affrighted; for they promise only what is unknown, with few chances of increasing the general happiness, if we are to judge of the future by the past.

"It would be a thousand times wiser, would it not, to lay aside these modifications in the political machinery, modifications henceforth powerless to ensure the well-being of mankind; it would be more prudent to neglect debates as sterile as the disputes of the Lower Empire, and to busy ourselves actively with the organization of labor, and the association of laborers; which appears to me very simple and easily executed."

the merchant. "As for myself I agree with you entirely, and therefore determine that I will urge on the inhabitants of M-----; I should feel great regret at seeing their good resolutions fail of producing any result. I will gladly put into the partnership quite a large farm which I own within the township, for I have no doubt of the success of the trial."

the professor. "And how could it fail? You may be certain of this, Sir, all the inhabitants of your town, whatever may be their rank and fortune, will' felicitate themselves every day that they have become associated. I do not deceive myself nevertheless; the happiness reserved for the children, completely developed and unitarily educated, will be much superior to that which the parents will enjoy; for these latter have received very different educations, and have imbibed prejudices which will render the unity imperfect: they are themselves ignorant of their vocations; the organization of the groups will be less satisfactory; the stimulants, in fine, of several among them, long thwarted, have become defects, which may cause some trouble in the community. We can never produce perfect music, when there are any false instruments in the orchestra.

"But do not doubt this, all the inhabitants will still find, from the first years, an immense amelioration in their lot, owing to the absence of anxiety for their future, to the unheard-of happiness of their children, to the great increase of their incomes, and to [99] the reciprocal good-will that will necessarily animate associates having the saUle interests and" the same object.

"If, however, from any cause, your association should be dis. solved, each of you would recover his capital or his improved land, and you could experience no loss, except on the sale of the "buildings which you must necessarily build in consequence of your horrible conflagration."

the merchant. "Do you then think, sir, that any village can make a trial of association without altering its buildings?"

the professor. "Very certainly, and things will probably take this course in general: the inhabitants of a township will associate, will organize their labors, and will not think of erecting the buildings necessary for unitary farming, barns, stables, granaries, &c., finally, the dwelling-house, except in proportion as the savings made upon their increased profits will allow them to build without borrowing too much."

the civil officer. "Do you think, sir, that government will permit our town to organize itself as it pleases?"

the professor. "By what right, I ask you, could they oppose it? And why, moreover, should they not permit it, when there is everything to be gained, and nothing to be lost by so peaceful a trial? Far from hindering your association, the government, do not doubt it, will come to your assistance, for its dearest interests urge it to this. Look for a moment: whether your attempt succeed or fail, it will have the glory of having contributed to the trial. It will always be said in praise of the King of Prussia, that he contributed with his purse to assist the generous Mr. Owen in founding a community of workmen. If, which is impossible, the attempt fail, the poor and suffering classes, and who does not suffer? will feel grateful for the efforts made to relieve them.

"If it succeed, on the contrary, what an immense service will be rendered to the human race! Its name will live as long as the world, and be blessed by the most remote generations.

"The trial of an associated village would be extremely useful to the government in every view; it would open a new and: fruitful route for the ideas which have at this day accumulated without means of political escape; like every hope, it would be [100] a calmative for the sufferings of the masses, a safety valve, capable of preventing the most terrible explosions.

"The government would also find a considerable increase of the public revenues in the societal order; for, is it not true, your town, when organized, would readily tax itself for a larger sum than that now exacted in its contributions? Now, this sum being taken without expense from the general revenues of the township, before any division, will enter undiminished into the treasury of the state. If then, all the population of France were organized into phalanxes, the budget could very easily be doubled, without occasioning the least murmur."

the merchant. "What is the meaning, if you please, of the word phalanx which you have just used?"

the professor. "Charles Fourier, who discovered the law of association of which we have to-day been speaking, calls by the name of phalanx the population of a township organized societarily. Hence comes phalanstery, the dwelling of a phalanx, as monastery signifies the dwelling-house of monks. Thence, phalansterian, belonging to the phalanstery, and by extension" to the whole system of association."

the merchant. "So, sir, it is Fourier who discovered this beautiful science which you call phalansterian, which is so logical, so religious, that you have had the goodness to explain to us, and which has singularly modified my ideas respecting man and society?"

the professor. "Yes, sir; at the commencement of this century, Fourier discovered the phalansterian or social science, which was propagated very slowly at first, like all new truth~ but which is now known and discussed among all civilized nations."

the magistrate. "I had formed, I confess, an entirely different opinion of Fourier's system. I thought it absurd, impracticable, subversive of property and the family."

the professor. "You see, sir, how mistaken you were. I know the prejudices which have been spread abroad respecting Fourier; this is why I took good care not to mention his name: I wished to be heard with impartiality. This is why I also avoided employing the terms used by the phalansterian school. Thus [101] I called stimulants the moving powers named passions by Fourier, who, in this, preserved the vulgar denomination; being very careful, moreover, to state beforehand, that the word passion in his writings never means vice, which is the excess, the false action or the motive power. In spite of this distinction, often reproduced in his works, many critics still persist in repeating that the phalansterian system, which they know nothing about, gives free course to all the passions."

the magistrate. "The reproach is very unjust. And if I am to judge by the statement that has been made to-day, Fourier confines himself to giving the means of organizing labor, that is to say, the social element now abandoned to anarchy. I cannot explain why people go crying through the world that Fourier preaches immorality."

the professor. "Oh! you may be sure, sir, that those who bring this accusation against Fourier do not know him, or calumniate him. Fourier did not come to proclaim a new politi. cal code, neither does he teach a new moral one. He does not say to men: in order to find happiness, adopt such and such a belief, reform your morals in such and such a manner. No! a thousand times no; this really religious man confines himself to saying; in order to be all happy, let us obey God, who commands us, by the voice of our attractions, to organize our labors by groups and series of groups.

"You have seen how any village Catholic, Protestant, Jew, or Mahometan, situated in a republic, or placed under an absolute government, can easily be transformed by degrees into a phalanstery, without ceasing to obey the laws of its country. Far from that: I maintain that every associated township will obey the laws more religiously than all others, for the more happy its inhabitants become, the less will they experience any desire to protest against existing institutions. It would be superfluous to demonstrate that they will be more moral."

the manufacturer. "Still, sir, I read one of Fourier's works by chance, and I saw how much the phalansterian manners and customs will differ from our own."

the professor. "Really, that would be a great pity: our morals are so pure nowadays! Oh! without doubt, sir, the [102] customs will not always be what they now are. God has not condemned humanity to wade for ever in blood and filth.

"When the whole of society shall have attained harmony, the social phalansterian sphere being thus named by Fourier and his school, the laws, the customs, the morals will certainly no never be what they now are. But the change will be produced by degrees, in proportion as necessity will have demanded them; the customs will place themselves in relation with the requirements of the new social sphere, as has al ways been the case. Our laws, our present customs are no longer the same as in the time of the Gauls: is not this true?

"What will be the manners of the harmonians? No one knows. Still everyone asks himself this question, every one would like to read the future. Fourier, quite naturally, has sought the solution of this problem; he has described with love, with candor, with a great power of imagination, the life which he believes is reserved for our descendants. The manners which he has described bear very slight resemblance to our manners; they would certainly be very immoral in our present society, the institutions of which they would destroy. Fourier, moreover, may have been mistaken in his conjectures; my own opinion is, that he has not always hit the mark. But had he been mistaken twenty times, a hundred times, had he been mistaken always, in regard to what the manners will be five or six hundred years hence, that would prove nothing against the value of his discovery.

"The question which interests us now is not, in fact, to know what our great grandchildren will do to regulate adoptions, marriages, &c. It is not now our mission to form those laws, and our descendants will know very well how to do this without our help when their time comes. That which is of importance for us to know, for us who are suffering in a thousand manners is, if association, and the organization of labor proposed by Fourier, will realize all his marvellous promises; that which is of importance for us to do, is to make trials that will edify the world."

At this moment our carriage stopped; we had reached our destination. We took leave of each other, but I promised [103] myself that I would not leave the country without seeing our professor again, in order to ask of him more ample details respecting the organization and the habits of an associated township.